Waste management could increasingly become a subject for historians rather than economists as large companies reach their goals of zero waste by 2000.



The measure of resource input per unit of use became popular in Europe as material inputs per service unit (MIPS) after the publication of a book by Professor Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek (1994).


Coomer, J. C., ed. 1981. Quest for a Sustainable Society. Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Policy Studies.

Giarini, O. and W. R. Stahel. 1989/1993. The Limits to Certainty—Facing Risks in the New Service Economy. Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic.

Jackson, T., ed. 1993. Clean Production Strategies, Developing Preventive Environmental Management in the Industrial Economy. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis.

Schmidt-Bleek, F. 1994. Wie viel Umwelt braucht der Mensch? MIPS - Das Mass fur Ökologisches Wirtschaften. Berlin: Birkhäuser Verlags AG.

Stahel, W. R. 1992. Product design and waste minimization. Pp. 91–98 in Waste Minimization and Clean Technology: Waste Management Strategies for the Future, W. A. Forester, and J. H. Skinner, eds. New York: Academic Press Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Stahel, W. R. 1993. Life expectancy of goods and future waste. Pp. 29–35 in International Directory of Solid Waste Management 1993/4—The International Solid Waste Association Yearbook. Kobenhavn, Denmark: International Solid Waste Association.

Stahel, W. R. 1994. The utilization-focused service economy: Resource efficiency and product-life extension. Pp. 178–190 in The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems, B. R. Allenby, and D. J. Richards, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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