The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management
TABLE 2 Results of the Kalundborg Symbiosis
Sources of Reduction
Total Reductions (tons/yr)
Nitrogen from biosludge
Phosphorus from biosludge
environmental impacts have been lessened through reductions in SO2 and CO2 emissions and improved quality of effluent water; and
traditional waste products such as fly ash, sulphur, biological sludge, and gypsum have been converted into raw materials for production.
The symbiosis has created a positive image of Kalundborg as a clean industrial city. Perhaps most significantly, there has been a gradual development of a systematic environmental "way of thinking" that may be applied to many other industrial settings and which may be used in planning new industrial complexes. The effective symbiosis at Kalundborg has a number of important characteristics (Box 1).
At Kalundborg, all future projects and/or process modifications will be considered for potential inclusion in the industrial symbiosis network. A number of interesting ideas have been identified for further study. In the meantime, the Kalundborg experience offers a practical model to examine ways to minimize the environmental impact from existing and new industrial complexes.
Traditionally, increase in industrial activity implies an almost linear increase in the load on the environment. The industrial symbiosis concept suggests that this need not necessarily be so. Indeed, under this model, increased industrial