TABLE 2 Results of the Kalundborg Symbiosis

Sources of Reduction

Total Reductions (tons/yr)

Resources

 

Oil

19,000

Coal

30,000

Water

1,200,000

Emissions

 

CO2

130,000

SO2

25,000

Waste

 

Fly ash

135,000

Sulfur

2,800

Gypsum

80,000

Nitrogen from biosludge

800

Phosphorus from biosludge

400

  • environmental impacts have been lessened through reductions in SO2 and CO2 emissions and improved quality of effluent water; and

  • traditional waste products such as fly ash, sulphur, biological sludge, and gypsum have been converted into raw materials for production.

The symbiosis has created a positive image of Kalundborg as a clean industrial city. Perhaps most significantly, there has been a gradual development of a systematic environmental "way of thinking" that may be applied to many other industrial settings and which may be used in planning new industrial complexes. The effective symbiosis at Kalundborg has a number of important characteristics (Box 1).

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

At Kalundborg, all future projects and/or process modifications will be considered for potential inclusion in the industrial symbiosis network. A number of interesting ideas have been identified for further study. In the meantime, the Kalundborg experience offers a practical model to examine ways to minimize the environmental impact from existing and new industrial complexes.

Traditionally, increase in industrial activity implies an almost linear increase in the load on the environment. The industrial symbiosis concept suggests that this need not necessarily be so. Indeed, under this model, increased industrial



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