requirements for all of its active mining and mineral processing operations as well as for its exploration, acquisition, and reclamation activities. He also oversees environmental audits and due-diligence assessments, provides permitting assistance, helps to promote industry concerns among regulators, and promotes awareness of energy efficiency and waste minimization. Prior to joining Kennecott, Chiaro managed a large environmental cleanup contract for Ebasco Environmental. He has a B.A. and M.A. (cum laude) in environmental engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and is a registered professional engineer in five states.

DAVID R. COPE is executive director of the U.K. Center for Economic and Environmental Development in Cambridge, England. The center is a charitable foundation set up in 1984 to conduct research on and to promote adoption of policies that advance economic growth while ensuring a high quality environment. The center has its own programs and also works in collaboration with international, national, and local governments, foundations, voluntary groups, private enterprises, and trade associations. Cope was formerly the environmental team leader of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Unit. Prior to his work at the IEA, he was an associate professor of energy and environment studies at the University of Nottingham, England. He has been an adviser to the U.K. government (on clean technologies and climate-change policy), an independent member of the committee set up to evaluate the implications of the Chernobyl incident for the United Kingdom, and a member of the Central Electricity Generating Board's environmental advisory panel. Cope has a B.A. in economics from Cambridge University and an M.A. in economics from the London School of Economics.

GLYN ENGLAND is chairman of Windcluster Ltd., a small wind-power company with a distinctive siting policy for its generators, and of Silvanus Services Ltd., which is concerned with the restoration and productivity improvement of traditional woodlands. England was formerly chairman of the South Western Electricity Board (a regional electricity supplier in England), the Central Electricity Generating Board (the former state bulk-electricity supplier in England and Wales) and the Environment Council, a charitable foundation. He has also been a consultant to the World Bank, a vice president of the International Union of the Producers and Distributors of Electricity, and a member of the Nuffield Foundation Enquiry into the Town and Country Planning System in Britain. England is a member of both the governing board of the U.K. Center for Economic and Environmental Development and the Royal Academy of Engineering.

ROBERT A. FROSCH is a senior research fellow at the Center for Science and International Affairs of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. In 1989, Frosch revived, redefined, and popularized the term industrial ecology, and his research has focused on this field in recent years, especially in metals-handling



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