Index

A

Accountability, environmental

accountancy for, 26, 185-186

Aluminum

characteristics, 149

industrial ecology implementation, 149-153

industrial energy consumption, 149

public perception of industry, 152-153

recycling, 149, 151, 152

Aquaculture, 85

Asset recovery, 22-23, 96

Auto industry

ecological design, 213-214, 215

life cycle analysis, 124-131

materials recovery market, 18

B

Bans, 7

Business management

customer satisfaction assessment, 133, 134, 143-145

decision making processes, 185-186

distribution of cost information within firm, 43

environment policy of mining companies, 166-167

environmental audit of multinational corporation, 137-143

environmental disclosure, 186-188

environmental goals, 1-2

environmental leadership, 132

environmental learning curve, 8

inadequate accounting systems, 189

incentives for environmental accounting, 191-192

incentives for environmental protection, 191-192

incentives for sustainable practices, 101, 105-106

industrial ecology domains, 150-151

information tools for environmental decision making 3-4

inventory systems, 21-22

measuring environmental performance, 26-27, 133, 134, 146

obstacles to efficient material management, 44

organizational issues for environmental accounting, 190-191

public opinion, 216



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OCR for page 259
The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management Index A Accountability, environmental accountancy for, 26, 185-186 Aluminum characteristics, 149 industrial ecology implementation, 149-153 industrial energy consumption, 149 public perception of industry, 152-153 recycling, 149, 151, 152 Aquaculture, 85 Asset recovery, 22-23, 96 Auto industry ecological design, 213-214, 215 life cycle analysis, 124-131 materials recovery market, 18 B Bans, 7 Business management customer satisfaction assessment, 133, 134, 143-145 decision making processes, 185-186 distribution of cost information within firm, 43 environment policy of mining companies, 166-167 environmental audit of multinational corporation, 137-143 environmental disclosure, 186-188 environmental goals, 1-2 environmental leadership, 132 environmental learning curve, 8 inadequate accounting systems, 189 incentives for environmental accounting, 191-192 incentives for environmental protection, 191-192 incentives for sustainable practices, 101, 105-106 industrial ecology domains, 150-151 information tools for environmental decision making 3-4 inventory systems, 21-22 measuring environmental performance, 26-27, 133, 134, 146 obstacles to efficient material management, 44 organizational issues for environmental accounting, 190-191 public opinion, 216

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management setting site-specific environmental goals, 140 shift to functionality economy, 95-96, 98-99 stakeholder interests, 134, 185 strategic environmental auditing, 134-137 structural trends, 101 supplier chain management, 20-21 for sustainable service economy, 96-98 systems-based problem-solving approach, 50 trade codes and practices, 107-108 trends in environmental thinking, 101, 104-105, 107-108, 146, 148, 185 virtual firms, 107 See also Financial management; Private sector C Chlorofluorocarbons, 7, 134, 219 alternative development, 20-21 Command and control regulation, 5 Conservation, 2 Consumer attitudes/behaviors activism, 217 corporate support for sustainability based on, 104 customer satisfaction measurement, 133, 134, 143-145 environmental concerns, 152-153, 216 environmental considerations in purchasing, 217-218, 224 global patterns, 94 green taxes, 208, 218 in Japan, 237 international variation, 212-213, 215-219 response to green advertising, 219-220, 224 significance of, 2, 27 in sustainable service economy, 98 trends, 27-28, 212, 217-218, 224 variations in U.S., 220 See also Public awareness and understanding Contingent valuation, 201 Costs of environmental impacts asset recovery, 23 challenges in estimating, 5 consumer attitudes, 28 current distribution, 5 current regulatory policy, 5-7 effects of product design for recycling, 28 environmental cost accounting, 24-26, 43 environmental reporting in annual reports, 186-188 implementing environmental accounting in businesses, 188-192 market allocation mechanisms, 7 in national accounting systems, 29, 51-57 in private sector decision making, 105-106 quantification in accounting, 194 recycling credits in paper industry, 228 research needs, 193-194 strategies for, 105 sustainability perspective, 92 total cost assessment methodology, 189-190 valuation for market analysis, 87, 125 waste management economics, 43 Critical technology lists, 69 D Data collection and management barriers to effective waste management , 43-44 consumer attitudes, 27-28 for corporate audit, 137 for environmental accounting, 24-26, 43, 188-190 for environmental protection, 24 for environmental protection plan, 163-164 environmental reporting in annual reports, 186-188 government role, 4, 29

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management for improving energy system efficiency, 86 for life cycle analysis, 226, 232, 240-241 materials tracking and benchmarking, 29 measuring environmental performance, 26-27 measuring public awareness and understanding, 3-4, 28-29 metabolic process analysis, 61 national accounting systems, 29, 51-57 needs assessment, 133 organizational changes in, 190-191 public relations, 152-153 report formats, 141-142 tools for environmental decision making, 3-4 for total quality environmental management, 133 Design for environment, 105, 125-126, 238-240 Dredging, offshore, 157 E Economic growth, 31-32 n.4 challenges to sustainability, 103-104 decoupling of natural resource inputs, 52 evolutionary model of environmental policy making, 51-52 Efficiency in combustion engines, 57-59 in electricity generation, 80-82 energy consumption in buildings, 77-79 in energy system, barriers to, 85-87 for improving environmental quality, 2 industrial ecology goals, 74-75 in materials management, 38-39 resource management goals, 93 Electricity production and consumption coal vs. gas, 81-82 cost allocation for improving efficiency, 78 delivery system in United Kingdom, 88 end-use case study, 77-80 energy chain, 77 environmental effects in United Kingdom, 75 generation plant design, 80-82 home energy efficiency rating, 78-80 industrial ecology concepts, 73, 77, 82 inefficiencies, 59 interactions of individual enterprises, 77 nuclear fission, 82, 214 patterns in United Kingdom, 75 subsidies for non-fossil-fuel use, 83 use of reject heat, 82, 83-85 waste as fuel, 83 See also Energy systems Energy systems achievements of industrial symbiosis project, 120-122 aluminum industry consumption, 149 barriers to efficiency, 85-87 consumption in Japan, 237 corporate audit, 140 decoupling from national accounts, 56 designing for multiple-product cycles, 12 efficiency of combustion engines, 57-59 functionality analysis, 24 industrial ecology goals, 87 metabolic model of consumption, 57 natural gas market, 154-155 paper industry, 229-230 political economy, 59-61 price of energy as policy factor, 85 renewable vs. nonrenewable sources, 229-230 significance of, for industrial ecology project, 75 sustainable development strategies, 74 tracking and benchmarking, 29 waste materials for fuel, 42, 83 See also Electricity production and consumption Environmental protection business leadership for, 132 conservation vs. technological strategies for, 2 market-based mechanisms for, 7 public opinion, 208

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management trends in private sector, 101, 104-105, 107-108 voluntary industrial efforts for, 8 Environmental Protection Agency, 201, 213 innovative approaches in, 5-7 total cost assessment methodology, 189-190 F Financial management cost allocation for improving efficiency of buildings, 78 employee incentives for environmental protection, 191-192 environmental cost accounting, 24-26, 43, 105-106, 185-186 environmental reporting in annual reports, 187 federal funding of R&D, 65-66 historical development of accounting, 195-196 implementing environmental accounting, 188-192 incentives for environmental protection in small firms, 192 measurement of economic well being, 95 mining reclamation bonds, 180 national accounting systems, 29, 51-57, 92 overhead costs, 195 political context of ecological spending, 59-61 prospects for environmental accounting, 196-197 quantification in environmental accounting, 194 technoeconomic paradigms, 66-69 total cost assessment methodology, 189-190 traditional linear approach, 92 urban vs. national economies, 70 n.2 in waste management, 43 Functionality economy, 23-24 definition, 91 future prospects, 98-99 implications for workforce, 99 marketing in, 98, 99 materials management for, 106-107 measures of success in. 96 objectives of, 91 sustainability concepts in, 95-96 sustainability goals, 92 G Global perspective differences in consumer attitudes, 212-213, 215-219 implications for corporate structure, 107 implications of higher resource efficiency, 95 in life cycle modeling, 231 multinational corporations, 1-2, 137-138, 140, 218-219 post-Cold War policy, 65 rationale, 1 supplier chain management, 21 urban vs. national economies, 70 n.2 Government activities data collection and management, 4 development of technoeconomic paradigms, 67-69 energy and materials measurements, 29 fragmented policies, 213 for improving environmental protection, 29, 48 Japanese recycling effort, 7-8 materials management, 29 mining industry oversight, 165-166 national accounting systems, 29, 51-57 need for systems-ecology perspective, 48-49, 50-51 political economy, 59-61 rationale for broadening of, 49-51 recycling efforts, 7-8 subsidies for non-fossil-fuel energy production, 83 technology development, 29 See also Policy making and implementation;Regulatory environment Green Party, 156, 213, 214

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management H Horticulture, 85 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, 134 I Industrial ecology as analytical tool, 2, 74 definitions, 2, 30-31 n.2, 74 energy sector, 73, 77, 82, 86, 87 goals, 87, 149 implementation in aluminum industry, 149-153 implications of public perception and understanding, 208-209 natural ecosystems model, 37-38 rationale for broader government role in, 48-51 research goals, 3 scales of implementation, 2-3 space-time hierarchical model, 49-50 spatial implementation, 74-75 steps for implementation, 150 systems perspective, 50-51, 148-149, 153 technoeconomic paradigms for, 66-69 trends in implementation, 148 trends in materials management, 38-39 Industrial manufacturing functionality perspective, 23-24 microdynamic technologies, 68 regionalization, 96, 99 synergetic/symbiotic relationship, 10-11, 117. See also Kalundborg (Denmark) industrial project system complexity, 149 U.S. resource consumption trends, 56 Inventory management, 21-22 ISO standards, 8, 32 n.7, 242 J Japan environmental law, 251-252 environmental policy in industries, 235, 246-250 government environmental goals, 234-236 life cycle analysis in, 236, 240, 241-242 recycling policy and practice, 7-8, 236-238, 243-244 K Kalundborg (Denmark) industrial project, 10 future prospects, 122-123 materials and energy flows, 120-122 origins and development of, 117, 118-120 participants, 117-118 significance of, 117, 148 L Learning organizations, 50 Leasing arrangements, 23-24, 40, 107 antitrust law and, 46, 107 cost allocation for improving efficiency of buildings, 78 Legal issues antitrust implications in leasing, 46, 107 environmental reporting by companies, 187-188 historical evolution of corporate law, 102 implications for corporate structure, 107 Japanese environmental law, 251-252 obstacles to recycling and reuse, 45-46 product liability, 98 Life cycle analysis, 105 applications, 20, 106, 242 of buildings, 78 components, 19 conceptual basis, 2 degree of detail, 226 designing for multiple-product cycles, 12-13, 40 distributed nature of manufacturing sector and, 106 emissions projections, 128-129 global consideration, 231 goals, 225, 240

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management impact analysis in, 225 information needs, 240-241 international scientific exchange on, 124 Japanese policy and implementation, 236, 240, 241-242 limitations, 19-20, 129 of manufacturing processes, 129-130 in materials management, 19-20 procedure, 241 in pulp and paper industry, 226-231 sensitivity analysis in, 127 sensitivity of data in, 232 service and maintenance considerations, 22-23 software for automobile design, 124-131 strategies, 238-240 trends, 8, 225-226 Linear thinking, 92 M Mail-order businesses, 22 Market functioning current distribution of environmental costs, 5 energy cost allocation, 78 environmental management mechanisms, 7 historical evolution of corporate entities, 102 home energy efficiency rating, 78-79 limitations of recycling strategies, 93, 95 metals recycling, 41-42 optimization of production, 94 problems of oversupply, 94-95 stakeholder interests of corporations, 102 valuation of environmental impacts, 87, 125 Marketing of goods and services ecolabeling, 217, 220, 225 functionality basis, 23 global variation in public environmental awareness, 218-219 green advertising, 219-220 industrial ecology approach, 152 in use-based economy, 98-99 Materials management achievements of industrial symbiosis projects, 120-122 chemical-use evaluations, 19 consumption of nonrenewable resources, 52 corporate culture as obstacle to efficiency, 44 designing for multiple-product cycles, 12-13, 40 government role, 29 for higher resource efficiency, 93-94 industrial ecology in aluminum industry, 149-153 industrial synergetic/symbiotic relationships, 10-11 legal obstacles to efficiency, 45-46 life cycle assessment, 19-20 in natural systems, 8, 37-38, 242-243 opportunities for environmental protection, 18-20 product responsibility loops, 93 regulatory obstacles to efficiency, 44-45, 75 selection of materials, 18-19 significance of, for environmental protection, 8 strategies, 8, 46 for sustainability, 52-53 in sustainable service economy, 96-98 synthetic substitutes for natural resources, 52 system requirements for efficiency, 10-12 systems approach, 8-10, 39 trends, 38-39 waste streams, 38 See also Recycling and reuse; Waste management Measurement in complex systems, 149 of customer satisfaction, 133, 134, 143-145 design considerations, 27

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management of economic system success, 95, 96 ecoscarcity method, 128 environmental audit of multinational corporation, 137-143 environmental performance of corporations, 26-27, 133, 134 goals, 27, 133, 146 of home energy efficiency, 78-79 importance of, 132 measurability considerations, 27 of national economic performance, 29, 51-57 process measures, 133, 134 of public perceptions, 201-207 quantification in environmental accounting, 194 of recycling rate, 244 report formats, 141-142 of resource efficiency, 93 strategic environmental auditing, 134-137 of sustainable resource use, 52-53 systems approach, 134 in total quality environmental management, 133 in toxic release inventory, 134 Metals industry economics of recycling, 41-42, 43 industrial ecology implementation, 149-153 information needs for waste management efficiency, 43-44 recycling technology, 42 zinc contamination in recycled steel, 42 Microdynamic technologies, 68 Mining corporate environment policy, 166-167 environmental impacts in process of, 174-179 exploration phase, 174-175 mine closure and rehabilitation, 179-180 organizational structure and operations, 167-170, 176-179 policy issues, 175-176, 178-179 public perception, 165 reclamation bonds, 180 regulatory environment, 165-166 waste generation, 177-178 waste site cleanup, 170-174 Multinational corporations environmental performance evaluation, 137-138 global variation in public environmental awareness, 218-219 setting site-specific environmental goals, 140 trends, 1-2 N Natural capital/resources components, 70 n.4 consumption in Japan, 237 economic valuation, 52, 70 n.5, 105, 125 environmental performance evaluation, 134 historical trends in consumption, 52 metabolic model of consumption, 57-61 optimization of use, 74 substitutability, 52 sustainable use, 52-53 U.S. consumption trends, 56 Nuclear power, 82, 214, 230 O Obsolescence, 22 P Packaging aluminum, 152 consumer evaluation of environmental performance, 143, 144-145 ecolabeling, 217 environmentally friendly, 146 n.3 life cycle analysis, 242 opportunities for environmental improvement, 21 Paper industry, 219 carbon cycle, 230-231 energy consumption, 229-230

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management life cycle analysis, 226-231 liquid paper board, 227 recycling credits, 228 recycling degradation, 228-229 Permits, pollution, 7 Pipeline project(s) economics, 156 environmental protection plan, 154, 162-164 monitoring, 164 North Sea project, 154-164 project planning, 156 supplier chain management, 21 technical challenges in environmentally sensitive area, 157-162 Plastics, 219 design for recycling/reuse, 19 technology partnerships, 21 Policy making and implementation consumer activism, 217 critical technology lists, 69 evolutionary model of environmental perspectives, 51-52 federal funding of R&D, 65-66 hierarchical model of industrial system interactions, 49-50 for higher resource efficiency, 93-94 of home energy efficiency rating, 79-80 for implementing sustainable economy, 110-111 in Japan, 234-246 lack of global perspective, 1 metabolic process analysis, 61 for mining industry, 175-176, 178-179 pipeline project planning and, 156 political context of ecological spending, 59-61 post-Cold War, 65 product take-back systems, 106-107 significance of public perception for, 200 state vs. federal mandates, 213 systems-based problem-solving approach, 50 technoeconomic paradigms, 66-69 See also Government activities;Regulatory environment Pollution abatement corporate audit, 140-141 in electricity generation, 81-82 emissions reporting requirements, 108 in Japan, 215 technical development vs. conservation for, 2 tradeable permits program, 7 Population growth, 56 Prices economics of recycling, 93 energy, 85 environmental costs in, 5 Private sector boundary definitions in sustainable economy, 110-111 goals conflict with sustainability, 103-104 historical evolution, 102 need for systems-ecology perspective, 50 profit-seeking goals, 102-103 prospects for implementing sustainable practices, 108-110 public interest behaviors in, 102-103 technology needs of sustainable economy, 104-105 See also Business management;Market functioning Product design commonality principle, 96-98 demand-side concept of quality, 98 design for environment tools, 125-126 life cycle approach, 2, 12-13 for multiple-product cycles, 12-13, 40 product definition for, 13-16, 32 n.6, 125 for recycling/reuse, 18, 22-23, 28, 39 reducing materials use in, 18 for sustainable service economy, 96 upgradability/interchangeability of parts, 16, 96-98 Product stewardship, 8 Production design electricity generation, 80-82 environmental learning curve, 8 green, 1

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management life cycle analysis of environmental effects, 129-130 opportunities for environmental protection, 18 trends in materials management, 39 Professional associations for life cycle analysis, 124 trade codes and practices, 107-108 Public awareness and understanding assessment of, 28-29 current environmental reporting practices of businesses, 186-188 demographic differences, 220 developing risk communications materials for, 207-208 difficulties in predicting, 201-202 employee role in influencing, 152-153 environmental goals of Japanese industry, 249 environmental reporting in annual reports, 186 environmental risk assessments, 201-202 in Europe, 213, 214, 222 home energy efficiency rating, 78-79 implications for industrial ecology, 208-209 in Japan, 222 measurement techniques, 203-207 mental models of risk processes, 203-206, 211 moral issues in, 208, 209 risk communication, 29 on role of business in environmental protection, 216 significance of, 3-4, 152-153, 200 waste composition, 219 waste incineration concerns, 83 See also Consumer attitudes and behaviors R Radon, 103-105 Recycling and reuse, 3 in aluminum industry, 149, 151, 152 asset recovery for, 22-23, 96, 106-107 barriers to, in metals markets, 42-46 corporate culture as obstacle to, 44 economic limitations, 93-95 goals, 243-244 Japanese policy and practice, 235-236, 243-244 lead products, 39 legal obstacles to, 45-46 market functioning, 43 materials management for, 18-19 measuring, 244 metals markets, 41-42 in paper industry, 228-229 policy approaches, 7-8 product design for, 18, 28 product take-back programs, 106-107, 108, 214 public practice, 217 recycle society concept, 236-238 regulatory obstacles to, 44-45 suitability of materials for, 42 Regulatory environment allocation of environmental costs, 5 command and control approach, 5 corporate compliance auditing, 134-137 European, 213-215 flexibility of, 3 fragmentary nature, 213 inadequacies in, 5-6, 109 incentive-based approach, 6-7, 105-106 in Japan, 215 for mining industry, 165-166, 175-176 obstacles to efficient waste management, 44-45, 75 recycling mandates, 7-8 take-back provisions, 108, 214 transition to self-organizing sustainable economy, 109-110, 111 See also Policy making and implementation Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 44 Risk assessment developing risk communications materials, 207-208 as measure of environmental performance, 26

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management mental models of, 203-206, 211 public awareness and understanding, 29 public opinion, 201-202 S Service economy, 23-24. See also Functionality economy Sherwood plot, 41 Solvent use and disposal, 44, 141 Standard of living, 28 Supplier chain management global considerations, 21 opportunities for environmental improvement, 20-21 Sustainability broad perspective, 92 critical systems, 91-92 economic modeling, 52-53 economic structure for, 99 functionality economy goals, 91-92 goals conflicts in private sector, 103-104 in Kalundborg (Denmark) industrial project, 117 prospects for private sector implementation, 108-111 service economy for, 95-96 sociopolitical evolution to, 51-52, 125 strategies for energy systems, 74 technoeconomic paradigms for, 68-69 technology for, 104-105 T Taxes for environmental management, 7 public opinion, 208, 218 United Kingdom policy, 214 Technology barriers to recycling, 42 critical technology lists, 69 design for environment tools, 125-126 development of technoeconomic paradigms, 66-69 diffusion and transfer, 109-249 electricity production, 80-82 environmental assessment, 18 environmental goals of Japanese industry, 248-249 federal funding, 65-66 government role in developing, 29 hierarchical model of industrial system interactions, 49-50 metals recycling, 42 miniaturization, 68 opportunities for environmental protection, 30 pipeline construction, 157-159 in post-Cold War environment, 65 private sector structures for innovation, 108-109 product substitution vs. product upgrade, 94 production design for environmental protection, 18 for sustainable economy, 98, 104-105, 108-109 vs. conservation for environmental improvement, 2 Technology partnerships, 20-21 Total cost assessment, 189-190 Total quality environmental management, 133 Toxic release inventory, 20, 134 Transportation of goods ecological trends, 213-214 metabolic model of consumption, 57-59 opportunities for environmental improvement, 22 political economy, 61 U.S. consumption trends, 56 U Utility elicitation, 201 W Wadden Sea pipeline project, 154-164 Waste management disposal costs, 43 economic of, 41-42, 43 electricity production from waste, 83

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The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Environmental Design and Management historical development, 37 industrial practice in Japan, 235 information needs, 43-44 Japanese policy, 235-236 mine cleanup, 170-174 mining process, 177-178 need for, 37 political economy of water, 61 problematic components in materials, 42 product design for, 16-18 suitability of materials for recycling, 42 sustainability perspective, 92 traditional linear conceptualization, 92 use of reject heat from electricity generation, 83-85 See also Materials management; Recycling and reuse Water economic metabolism, 61 political economy, 61 resource management evaluation, 134