for improving energy system efficiency, 86

for life cycle analysis, 226, 232, 240-241

materials tracking and benchmarking, 29

measuring environmental performance, 26-27

measuring public awareness and understanding, 3-4, 28-29

metabolic process analysis, 61

national accounting systems, 29, 51-57

needs assessment, 133

organizational changes in, 190-191

public relations, 152-153

report formats, 141-142

tools for environmental decision making, 3-4

for total quality environmental management, 133

Design for environment, 105, 125-126, 238-240

Dredging, offshore, 157

E

Economic growth, 31-32 n.4

challenges to sustainability, 103-104

decoupling of natural resource inputs, 52

evolutionary model of environmental policy making, 51-52

Efficiency

in combustion engines, 57-59

in electricity generation, 80-82

energy consumption in buildings, 77-79

in energy system, barriers to, 85-87

for improving environmental quality, 2

industrial ecology goals, 74-75

in materials management, 38-39

resource management goals, 93

Electricity production and consumption

coal vs. gas, 81-82

cost allocation for improving efficiency, 78

delivery system in United Kingdom, 88

end-use case study, 77-80

energy chain, 77

environmental effects in United Kingdom, 75

generation plant design, 80-82

home energy efficiency rating, 78-80

industrial ecology concepts, 73, 77, 82

inefficiencies, 59

interactions of individual enterprises, 77

nuclear fission, 82, 214

patterns in United Kingdom, 75

subsidies for non-fossil-fuel use, 83

use of reject heat, 82, 83-85

waste as fuel, 83

See also Energy systems

Energy systems

achievements of industrial symbiosis project, 120-122

aluminum industry consumption, 149

barriers to efficiency, 85-87

consumption in Japan, 237

corporate audit, 140

decoupling from national accounts, 56

designing for multiple-product cycles, 12

efficiency of combustion engines, 57-59

functionality analysis, 24

industrial ecology goals, 87

metabolic model of consumption, 57

natural gas market, 154-155

paper industry, 229-230

political economy, 59-61

price of energy as policy factor, 85

renewable vs. nonrenewable sources, 229-230

significance of, for industrial ecology project, 75

sustainable development strategies, 74

tracking and benchmarking, 29

waste materials for fuel, 42, 83

See also Electricity production and consumption

Environmental protection

business leadership for, 132

conservation vs. technological strategies for, 2

market-based mechanisms for, 7

public opinion, 208



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