outcomes of any growth depend on the number of people to be supported by the growth, the types and kinds of economies and technology that make up the growth, the levels of material well-being, and the geophysical and biological environments in which growth occurs.

5.  

Four examples of the implementation of the ecoindustrial park idea, in Baltimore, Md., Brownville, Tex., Port of Cape Charles, Va., and Chattanooga, Tenn., are discussed in the Eco-Efficiency Task Force Report (President's Council on Sustainable Development, 1996).

6.  

Product definition is not unique to manufacturing. Other terms may be used in industries such as mining, where the plan for exploration, extraction, through to final closure of the mine may be elements that are dealt with at the front end (Chiaro, this volume) in design, planning, construction, operation, and final restoration. The basic concept is to address existing and potential environmental quality concerns from the initial conceptualization of the product, facility, or service and to continually review and address potential concerns throughout development, operation, and retirement or end of product life.

7.  

The International Standards Organization (ISO) was chartered in 1946 to create harmonized, uniform world standards for the manufacturing, communication, and trade sectors in technical and safety matters. Since 1993, ISO has been developing ISO 14001, which establishes overall standards for organizational environmental management systems. It does not dictate performance, but lays out the essential elements and practices that organizations need to achieve regardless of external or internal environmental performance goals that are set.

Other ISO 14000 standards that are being prepared cover environmental auditing, environmental performance evaluation, environmental labeling, life cycle assessment, and the environmental aspects of product standards. The product-based standards are likely to be the last in the series to be released, due to the lack of consensus on methodologies and approaches. They are however, likely to have the most far-reaching impact on business, since they are expected to demand data that are often difficult to generate and interpret.

REFERENCES

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Balzhiser, R. E.1989. Meeting the Near-Term Challenge for Power Plants. Pp. 95–113 in Technology and Environment, J. H. Ausubel and H. E. Sladovich, eds. Washington, D.C.:National Academy Press.

Business in the Environment and KPMG Peat Marwick. 1992. A measure of commitment: Guidelines for measuring environmental performance. London: Business in the Environment.


Commoner, B.1971. The Closing Circle. New York: Bantam Books.


Ditz, D., J. Ranganathan, and R. D. Banks. 1995. Green Ledgers: Case Studies in Corporate Environmental Accounting. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.


Ehrenfeld, J. 1995. Presentation at NAE Workshop on The Services Industry and the Environment, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Eyring, G. 1994. Trends in materials technology. Pp. 23–25 in Industrial Ecology: U.S./Japan Perspectives, D. J. Richards and A. B. Fullerton, eds. Washington, D.C.:National Academy Press.


Frosch, R. A., and N. E. Gallopoulos. 1989. Strategies for manufacturing. Scientific American 260:144–151.

Frosch, R. A., and N. E. Gallopoulos, 1992. Towards an industrial ecology. In The Treatment and Handling of Wastes, Bradshaw, et al., eds. London: Chapman and Hall.


Graedel, T. E., and B. R. Allenby. 1995. Industrial Ecology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.



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