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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. August 23, 1926-February 8, 1991 BY HERBERT L. COSTNER IN HIS EXCEPTIONALLY productive life, Hubert Blalock played a major role in shaping the field of sociology during the latter half of the twentieth century. His vision of social sci- ence inspired his students and colleagues as much as his teaching and writing instructed them. Although his life took some surprising turns in his youth, his career as a sociolo- gist was surprising only to those who underestimated his commitment and creativity. Hubert Morse Blalock, Jr., was born in Baltimore, Mary- land, on August 23, 1926. His mother, born Dorothy Welsh, was the daughter of a prosperous hat manufacturer in Bal- timore. She met her future husband at Johns Hopkins Uni- versity where both were working toward a master's degree in history. Hubert Blalock, Sr., was raised by his mother, a widowed schoolteacher in North Carolina. Following comple- tion of his master's degree i In history and a degree in law, the elder Blalock accepted employment in the legal depart- ment of the casualty division of the Aetna Casualty and Surety Company of Hartford, Connecticut. He remained with Aetna for his entire career and retired as a senior officer of the company. It was in West Hartford that Hubert Blalock, Jr., had his 23

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24 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS early schooling. Young Tad Blalock, whose childhood nick- name lasted a lifetime, was a bright and active boy for whom the public school program in the elementary grades was not very challenging. As Tad was about to enter the seventh grade, his parents decided that a private school might be better able to channel his energies in constructive ways. They selected the well-respected Loomis School, which was relatively close to home and hence did not require Tad to become a boarding student. Young Blalock blossomed at his new school, especially in mathematics. After the Loomis faculty noted how he raced through the established mathematics curriculum, they de- veloped more advanced courses especially for him. When he graduated from the Loomis School in June 1944, World War IT was under way. Tad knew that he would enter mili- tary service shortly after he turned eighteen, but he had time for one semester at Dartmouth before entering the U.S. Navy in December 1944. Nothing in his background had prepared eighteen-year- old Tad Blalock for his two years in the Navy. Tad himself later wrote: I was a total misfit in the Navy, from the very first day when our Chief Petty Officer delivered a speech ending with the sentence, "Remember, youse guys, in the Navy you don't think!" (Blalock, 1988, p. 107) Tad's mathematical aptitude landed him in radar train- ing school in Chicago immediately after his induction. A1- though he could readily master the textbook principles, he found the hands-on applications tedious and uninteresting. He requested a transfer to sea duty and soon found himself assigned as a radio operator on a Landing Ship Tank (I=ST) serving in and around Shanghai. In the Nav,v Blalock first encountered the full variety of American youth. He was more puzzled than pleased by his

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, OR. 25 new compatriots, and he cTicin't fit into the common rou- tine of drinking, carousing, ant! hackneyed obscenities. When their LST visited! Chinese port cities, Tad was appallecl to fins! that some of his shipmates "delighted in their nightly fisticuffs (and worse) with the so-called 'gooks"' (Blalock, 198S, p. 108~. For Tact Blalock the Navy providecl both an eye-opening and a heart-rencling experience. It awakener! in him a deep sympathy for those who were poor and sub- servient and a vague commitment to make their lives bet- ter. In 1946, after completing his Navy service, Tacl Blalock returnee! to Dartmouth, where he majored in mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 194S, awarclecl the Thayer Mathematics Prize in 1949, anct in the same year was accorded a bachelor of arts degree in mathematics, summa cum laucte. But as a Dartmouth undergracluate he tract also discovered new interests. His concern for the poor and subservient, initially kincIlec3 by his Navy experience, was reinforced by taking the "Great Issues" course required of Dartmouth seniors. He had also fount! an off-campus way of expanding his insights into the worIc! of the under- privileged. He hac! become involved in the workshops of the American Friends Service Committee. During the sum- mer following completion of his bachelor's degree at Dartmouth, Tac3 worked in a Quaker work camp in a black area. He later reported that he "hacT always hac! a concern about the treatment of blacks in America perhaps a Myrciallian white guilt complex" (Blalock, 198S, p. 109~. The Quaker summer camp provided his first experience of daily contact with black people. In the fall of 1949 Tacl starter! work on a master's degree in mathematics at Brown University. There, he discovered the meaning of "pure" mathematics, as well as the impact of

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26 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS absolutely horrible teaching. At about that time I began to realize that I did not want to spend my lifetime being quite so pure, and that there was something of an escape from reality in all of this. (Blalock, 1988, p. 109) Tad remained at Brown for his master's degree, but in 1950 he shifted from mathematics to sociology "almost sight un- seen." He had previously had only two sociology courses. One of the friends whom Tad encounterer! in the work- shops of the American Friends Service Committee was Ann Bonar from West Virginia. Following her graduation from Oberlin College in 1950, Ann hacI come to Boston as a research assistant on a Harvarc! University enclocrinology project at Massachusetts General Hospital. She spent her weekends as a volunteer at Peabody House, a famous oIc3 West End settlement house. There in the fall of 1950 she met Tact Blalock. He was a graduate student at Brown who came to Boston about every other weekend to participate in the Quaker workcamp at Peabody House. Ann Bonar and Tad Blalock rapidity cliscoverecl their com- mon values en cl interests. They first cliscussecl marriage while walking around Walden Ponct, and Tad gave Ann an en- gagement ring in the spring of 1951. They were married in August 1951 in Parkersburg, West Virginia, Ann's home- town. They spent their honeymoon camping and canoeing in the Adirondacks in New York. Tad's mother never quite understood his unusual tastes, ant! she maligned him for taking this fragile girl into the wilderness and making her sleep on the ground for two weeks. The newlyweds were both intent on continuing their eclu- cation, Tact in sociology and Ann in social work. Having searched intensively for a university with strong programs for both, they decided on the University of North Carolina. Professors Howarc! Oclum, Rupert Vance, and Guy Johnson were the influential elders of the North Carolina Depart- ment of Sociology at that time, but a somewhat younger

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. 27 group of faculty members also influenced Tacl's academic clevelopment. His interest in the use of statistics in social research was fostered by Daniel Price, while Nicholas Demerath influenced his thinking about sociological theory. Guy Johnson was his principal mentor in the field of race relations. Tad spent only three years at North Carolina, a relatively brief time for a sociologist to complete a Ph.D. By the time he left in 1954, he had pushed himself through a demanct- ing reacting program, completecl a minor in mathematical statistics, and finished a dissertation. His dissertation raised some eyebrows in the sociology department, where the es- tablished practice was to undertake an empirical study for the dissertation. Contrary to the usual practice Tacl's ctisser- tation was an attempt to achieve a more systematic theoreti- cal formulation in the field of race relations, drawing on the work of Robin Williams, E. Franklin Frazier, and others. Although new Ph.D.s in sociology were not in high de- man(1 in 1954 Blalock was highly recommen(lecl by his men- tors, and his first academic position was at the University of Michigan. The prevailing practice at that time was for new Ph.D.s to begin, not as assistant professors, but as instruc- tors and to carry teaching Toacis that were consiclered, a decacle later, inordinately burdensome. Twenty-eight-year- oic! Tact Blalock, instructor in sociology, was in charge of his department's statistics courses, both graduate and un- clergraduate. He also taught introductory sociology and the undergraduate course on research methods, ant! he served as an academic counselor for unclergracluate majors and incoming graduate students. Enthusiasm notwithstanding, classroom teaching clicl not come naturally to Instructor Blalock in his first years as a faculty member. One of the first things he had to learn about teaching was that everyone clid not grasp abstract

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28 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS mathematical concepts as reaclily as he clicI, and the panic and tears of some of his early students in statistics courses prompted him to devise teaching procedures that went be- yond the usual classroom lecture. He worked to develop improved ways of communicating with the students in his classes. But, even more, he ctevotec3 aciclitional teaching and consulting time to his students, offering extra sessions and special assistance to those who wanted to take advantage of them. Even in his first years of teaching, TacI showocI evi- clence of the kind of concern and the extra time commit- ment that were to earn for him the high respect of several generations of students. As clemancling as his teaching duties were in those early years, Blalock rapidly started to accumulate a publication record. He had tremendous energy and drive. He lovecI what he was doing, and he frequently worker! late into the evening and all through the weekend. During the first six years following completion of his Ph.D. (1954-60), he pub- lishecl eleven papers in scholarly journals, including papers in The American Sociolo~caZ Review, The fournal of the Amera- can Statistical Association, ant! SocialForces. Occasionally, Tad and Ann Blalock published jointly, beginning in 1959 with a paper in Philosophy of Science. Other joint products of Tact and Ann cluring their years at Michigan were two slaughters: Susan Lynn (1956) and Kathleen Ann ~1958). While the flurry of journal publications from 1956 to 1960 was sufficient in itself to suggest an unusually active young scholar, another publication effort was uncler way. In 1960 the first edition of Social Statistics was published. Tad later inclicatecl that, at the time, he was unaware of the clisciain that some of his senior colleagues hac] for textbook writing, especially in statistics rather than sociology. After completing his manuscript, he was surprised to learn that it

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. 29 would not be very beneficial in his tenure decision. Per- haps it is fortunate that he didn't know; otherwise he might not have written this outstanding and influential textbook. In writing this volume, Blalock drew on his own training in mathematics and statistics, but he wrote for social scientists interested! in applying statistical techniques rather than for mathematicians interested in the formal theory of statistics. It was also evident that Blalock drew on his experience as a teacher of statistics, and his book was clesigned to clarify the funciamentals applied in social science research for stu- clents lacking an extensive mathematical background. The book was authoritative without being esoteric, ant! it was student oriented without being oversimplifiecI. Adoptions for classroom use were soon sufficiently numerous to make the book a commercial as well as a peciagogical success. In the fall of 1961 Blalock accepted an offer to become an associate professor at Yale. His stay there was brief (three years), but it was during this period that he produced a series of publications on statistical procedures relevant to causal inferences. His book titled Causal Inferences in Nonexperimental Research, published in 1964, included an ex- amination of prior philosophical discussions of cause ant! effect, but its primary focus was the exploration of strate- gies for making reasonable inferences about causal processes from a combination of a priori assumptions and statistical outcomes. He also published a number of papers on the same general topic. Between 1961 and 1964 inclusive, he published twelve papers in scholarly journals, primarily The American journal of Sociology and The American Sociological Re- view. His papers on causal inferences built on the founcia- tion laid by Sewell Wright in the development of path analysis four clecades earlier. He also built on structural equation models c3 eveloped by econometricians since the ~ 930s. Blalock's papers were wiclely react and were among the most

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30 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS influential papers in sociology during the decade. His name was thereafter closely associated with causal models in the thinking of sociologists, and his reputation as a sociologist and statistical methodologist spread throughout the United States and abroad. Along with his growing reputation as a sociologist, Tad Blalock's family was also growing at Yale. His son, lames Welsh, was born in 1963, joining his sisters Susan and Kathleen. Responding to an offer of a full professorship, Blalock moved in 1964 to the University of North Carolina, where he remained until 1971. His years as a faculty member at North Carolina were highly productive. At North Carolina he produced three books and coedited a fourth with his wife, Ann. Two of these books were especially influential. Toward a Theory of Minority Group Relations, published in 1967, was a continuation of the work undertaken in his Ph.D. dissertation. Citations to this work continue after twenty- f~ve years. In 1969 he published Theory Construction: From Verbal to Mathematical Formulations, in which he described a mode of theory construction intended to help bridge the gap between traditional sociological theory and empirical research. This short book is appropriately seen as an exten- sion of his earlier work on causal inferences. The papers produced during Tad Blalock's period as a North Carolina faculty member were even more influential than his books of that period. While at North Carolina, he published twenty-one papers on a variety of substantive and methodological topics. His most influential papers of this period were concentrated in two areas. First, he presented a set of papers on methodological problems entailed in testing theories of status inconsistency. The theme in these papers was the intractable nature of certain formulations of the theory because the set of equations associated with those

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. 31 formulations was undericlentif~ecI. The importance of these papers lay, not simply in their relevance for status inconsis- tency theory, as then formulated, but in making the more general point that verbal formulations of theoretical icleas frequently make it clifficult to recognize logical flaws, hark- ing back to one of the points in Theory Construction: From Verbal to Mathematical Formulations. The second set of influential papers published during Tad's period as a faculty member at North Carolina per- tainecT to conceptualization ant! measurement in social re- search. In these papers the pervasive feature is representa- tion of the relationship between concepts and their empirical indicators in the form of a causal moclel. This representa- tion allowed him to explore measurement error and its implications for multiple regression, path analysis, and struc- tural equation moclels. This was to be one of the continu- ing themes in his work for the remainder of his life. Tad's publications brought him increasing recognition, and this was reflected in his invitation to serve on eclitorial boards or as an associate editor for several journals. He hacl earlier ~1962-64) served as an associate editor of The Ameri- can Sociological Review, and in the late 1960s he was invited to serve in a similar role for The American Journal of Sociol- ogy, Social Problems, en cl Sociological Methodology. He was electecl to serve on the Council of the American Statistical Associa- tion in 1970 and on the Council of the American Sociologi- cal Association in 1971. Although Tad hac3 a highly congenial set of departmental colleagues at the University of North Carolina, he felt that the university was not in step with the spirit of the times. Influenced by the civil rights movement ant! the antiwar movement, there was a spirit of moral change in the coun- try at the encI of the 1960s. Tact hacl Tong been an advocate for civil rights, ant! he was pleaser! to see that American

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32 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS universities were in the vanguard of change. On the other hand, the University of North Carolina seemec! to him to be unduly influenced. by a faculty and administration that were intent on preserving ctiscreditec! traditions. Among other things, Tac3 believer! the university was failing to re- cruit black students with genuine vigor. In an unrelated matter pertaining to a young faculty member, when the most conservative elements in the university took actions that Tad consicierect unwarranted and unfair, it was the pro- verbial straw that broke the camel's back. Tad decider! to seek a suitable position at another university. After careful consideration of several options, Tad ac- ceptecI an offer to join the University of Washington faculty in the fall of 1971. There he continued to play a vital role in the training of graduate students, ant! he was the recipi- ent of numerous honors. Tacl's many publications ant! other achievements cluring his Washington years can probably best be summarized by considering them in two sets: those prior to ~ 980 and those that came in 1980 or later. In the earlier of these periods (1971-79), Tad was the author or coauthor of three books and the editor or coeditor of three additional volumes. In these books he further clevelopec! his work on familiar top- ics, notably quantitative research methoclology and race re- lations. The book of this period that was most influential was probably an editec! volume published in 1971 with the title Causal Models in the Social Sciences. In this collection Tad brought together papers by several authors, including some papers published for the first time. This collection served as a major resource for the further clevelopment ant! application of causal moclels in social science research. In 1973 Tad received the Stouffer Award, presented by the American Sociological Association in recognition of his outstanding contributions to sociological research anc! re-

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. 33 search methoclology. He was made a fellow of the American Statistical Association in 1974 and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1975. He was electec! to the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 and served as president of the American Sociological Association in 1978- 79. Such exaTtecl recognition must have macle an impres- sion on TacI, but the only change in his behavior evident to colleagues ant! students was an increase in his energy. It A was almost as if he were intent on convincing everyone around him that he was not unduly impressed by his own success and that he wasn't going to rest on his laurels. As president of the American Sociological Association, Tact was persistent in his attempts to improve the discipline. In his presiclential report to the membership (Footnotes, Au- gust 1979), he urged the association to give continuing at- tention to several important matters, three of which repre- sentec! well his own long-term personal and professional commitments: improving the training of sociologists, up- gracling the quality of un(lergracluate teaching in sociology, ant] enhancing the standing of sociological research as a basis for social action anc} public policy decisions. ~ Unclergracluate teaching en cl the improved training of sociologists were matters of persistent concern to Tact. He was a superb exemplar of a committed teacher, and he was an active participant in the programs of the association de- votecl to improving unclergra(luate education. Scores of graclu- ate studentsmany from (disciplines other than sociology- considered Tad's courses one of the highlights of their graduate training. Tact was always emphasizing for his col- leagues the neecl to upgrade graduate training and to up- gracle skills in postdoctoral training programs. He subse- quently publisher! papers on quality training for sociology graduate students. Tad's interest in enhancing the standing of sociological

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34 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS research as a basis for social action and public policy cleci signs was central to his own conception of sociology. He was committee! to developing the king! of sociology that would be useful in application while also meeting the most exacting standarcis of methodological rigor and theoretical sophistication. To Tacl's chagrin, many of his fellow sociolo- gists saw these objectives as mutually incompatible. They commonly expected an applied sociologist to have limiter! interest in theory development and little commitment to improving research methodology. Furthermore, many ex- pected a sociological theorist to be clisciainful of applica- tions ant! indifferent to empirical studies. And a widely held stereotype portrayecl the empirical researcher in sociology as contemptuous of theory and lacking in concern for ap- pliec3 or policy concerns. But for Tac! these three elements- general theory, sounc! empirical research, and policy rel- evanceconstitutes! an integrated whole toward which the discipline shoulc! always strive. His interest in improving research methodology and his concern for the development of sounc! theory were primarily means to make the field more relevant to action en cl policy problems. The social conscience that Tacl clevelopect as a very young man and that was nurtured by the workshops of the American Friends Service Committee ant! his explorations in the field! of race relations was still with him as president of the American Sociological Association. Eight of the ten papers Tad published between 1971 and 1979 inclusive were clevoted to issues pertaining to social science conceptualization and measurement. One of these was the published version of his 1979 presidential acicTress to the American Sociological Association. His title was "Mea- surement and Conceptualization Problems: The Major Ob- stacle to Integrating Theory and Research." It was evident that Tact believed that conceptualization and measurement

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. 35 problems were serious impediments to the continuing de- velopment of sociology, and he was not optimistic about the prospects for much progress in resolving such prob- lems in his lifetime. The pessimistic tone and the high level of abstraction of his presidential address did not make it a crows! pleaser. But pleasing the crows! en cl oversimplifying complex issues hacl never been high in Tad's priorities, and he consi(lerec! it important to highlight for his sociological colleagues some difficult problems that needed resolution. By 1980 Tact hac! accumulates! an impressive record of achievements. He was a sociologist with an international reputation; he hacI been elected to membership in the nation's most prestigious scientific organization; and he hacl just completecl a term as president of the national organi- zation for members of his discipline. But at fifty-four he was far too energetic ant! vigorous to be satisfier! simply being an elcler statesman. He continued working. In 1982 he was selected to present the Annual Faculty Lecture at the University of Washington. In 1983-84 he served as vice-chair of the University of Washington Faculty Sen- ate, and in 1984-85 he serves! as the chair of that body. This office brought with it a host of committee and aciministra- tive responsibilities, including ex officio membership on the Boarc! of Regents. He immersed himself in these activi- ties, and his penetrating questions cliff not always endear him to the university administration. But his straightfor- warcl style, his questioning attitude, his strong commitment to fairness, and his fervent defense of scholarly values gave him an enthusiastic following among the faculty. Even as he was heavily engaged in the activities of the University of Washington Faculty Senate, his commitment to teaching dill not falter and his scholarly productivity (lid not decline. In the early 198Os he authorec! three books, edited! a volume of selected papers from the 1979 meeting

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36 BIOGRAPHICAL EMOIRS of the American Sociological Association, and coedited a collection of works on teaching sociology. He was also the author or coauthor of eight papers in the first half of the clecac3 e. Few people knew in 1984and no one who didn't know wouIc! have guessed that Tad hac! a serious health prob- lem. During a routine hernia operation, he was found to be suffering from a rare form of abclominal cancer. He was toic3 that there was no cure. He was also toicl that the can- cer was relatively slow growing ant! that the major treat- ment wouIcT be periodic surgery. Tacl undoubtedly unclerstooc3 all that the specialists toIct him about his condition. He probably believed them. But it was almost as if his cancer en c! the threat it posed to his life never seemed real enough to him to be worthy of cliscus- sion. Even with family members he declined to discuss his disease and his altered life expectancy. It was not a topic he broached with colleagues; he could always final more inter- esting and more productive things to talk about. Even so, beginning about 1987, an examination of Tacl's work suggests that he had macle a subtle change in his scholarly agenda, in recognition of his deteriorating health. After that ciate, his papers appeared primarily in edited collections, as if he were fulfilling commitments to a few colleagues to prepare a paper for their special volumes. , at. . . .. . ~ ne two major works that ne completed in the few years remaining before his death reach for a new level of gener- ality. A longtime student of race relations, TacI had, of course, also been a student of social conflict and the exercise of power as exemplified in race relations. In Power and Conflict Processes: Toward a General Theory, Tad no longer focuses specifically on race relations; rather, he examines power and conflict more abstractly, considering the relevant pro- cesses in all contexts, including, but not limited to, the

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. 37 context of race relations. Similarly, in Understanding Social Inequality: Modelling Allocation Processes, TacT goes beyond the specific features of inequality entailecI in the stratification of racial groupings to explore general processes that create and sustain social inequality. These two books are a fitting capstone for Tact's Tong series of publications. They em- bocly his persistent conviction that sociology must develop systematic and general theoretical formulations with clear links to the empirical worIcI. They illustrate his belief that common explanations for social phenomena are overly sim- plistic and hence lack the capacity to advance unclerstanc3- ing. They address pressing public policy problems in ways that are intenclec! to provide guidelines for potential social change. An cl his argument is presented in the form of care- fully formulated causal moclels, a form that became promi- nent in sociology largely through his work. Even as he continued to work, medical treatments peri- oclically interrupted Tacl's schecluTe. The treatments were risky and painful, ant! each required weeks of recovery. Be- tween treatments, abdominal blockages created pain, in- creasingly severe clietary restrictions, ant! continuing weight Toss. Long before his retirement in ~ 989, Tac3 's cleteriorat- ing health was evident to all who saw him. In the spring of 1989 Tac3 retired from active faculty sta- tus to become professor emeritus. During that spring the Department of Sociology at the University of Washington sponsorec! a lecture series in Tacks honor. Eight ctistinguished scholars whose work was relater! in some way to Tad's were brought to Seattle to present public lectures on their cur- rent work and recent finclings. As the 1988-89 academic year drew to a close, the Department of Sociology celebrated Tacl's career with a retirement dinner, complete with remi- niscing speakers and testimonial toasts. Tad was on such a

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38 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS heavily restricted cliet that he could not enjoy the feast, but he evidently enjoyocl the event. Tacl's brief period as professor emeritus was a period of continuing physical clecline despite his tenacious will to live and a determination to continue his work. While recover- ing from his final surgery, he read proofs for his last book. He was notified by telephone that he was the 199:1 recipi- ent of the American Sociological Association's Lazarsfelct Awarc! four days before he cried on February 8, 1991. The Persian Gulf War was uncler way, and Tad spent his final clays analyzing recent developments in the MidcIle East in light of the general principles he hac! cliscussed in Power and Conflict Processes: Toward a General Theory. To the end of his life, Tad remained a person of great inner strength, sustained by the remarkably warm and close relationship that he and Ann maintained for nearly forty years. To many he was an inspiring figure of great personal warmth. In the worcis of the LazarsfelcI Award citation, " . . To colleagues, friends, and scores of former students, he was known simply and very affectionately as 'TacI,' and his image as an internationally renowned sociologist is in- extricably mixed with his image as a kinc! and generous human being who has enriched the lives of many" (Foot- notes, April ~ 99 ~ ~ . ~ AM INDEBTED TO Ann Blalock for providing much information about Tad's life that would otherwise have been inaccessible to me. Her assistance has greatly enriched this memoir and eased the task of writing it. Tad's own partial biographical sketch, titled "Socializa- tion to Sociology by Culture Shock," was a helpful resource more often than one might infer from the explicit citations to it.

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, jR. RE F E RE N C E S 39 Blalock, H. M. Socialization to Sociology by Culture Shock. In Socio- logacal Lives, ed. M. W. Riley, pp. 107-17. Beverly Hills: Sage Publi- cations. 1988. Report of the President: Blalock Stresses Long-Term Issues. Foot- notes 7 (august 1979~:1, 10, 14. (Published by the American So- ciological Association, Washington, D.C. ~ Lazarsfeld Award Made to Hubert M. Blalock. Footnotes l9 (April 1991) :1.

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40 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G RAP H Y 1957 Per cent non-white and discrimination in the south. Am. Sociol. Rev. 22:677-82. 1960 Social Statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill. A power analysis of racial discrimination. Soc. Forces 39:53-59. 1961 Evaluating the relative importance of variables. Am. Sociol. Rev. 26:866- 74. 1962 Four-variable causal models and partial correlations. Am. f. Sociol. 68:182-94. 1963 Making causal inferences for unmeasured variables from correla- tions among indicators. Am. f. Sociol. 69:53-62. 1964 Causal Inferences in Nonexperimental Research. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 1965 Theory building and the concept of interaction. Am. Sociol. Rev. 39:375-80. 1966 The identification problem and theory building: the case of status inconsistency. Am. Sociol. Rev. 31:52-61. 1967 Toward a Theory of Minority Group Relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

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HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. 1969 41 Theory Construction: From Verbal to Mathematical Formulations. Englewood Cliffs, N.~.: Prentice-Hall. 1970 Estimating measurement error using multiple indicators and sev- eral points in time. Am. Sociol. Rev. 35:101-11. 1971 Editor. Causal Models in the Social Sciences. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton (Rev. ea., 1985~. Aggregation and measurement error. Soc. Forces 50:151-65. 1974 Editor. Social Science Measurement: Theories and Strategies. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton. 1979 Black-~7aite Relations in the 1980's: Toward a Long Term Policy. New York: Praeger. With P. H. Wilken. Intergroup Processes: A Micro-Macro Perspective. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. Measurement and conceptualization problems: the major obstacle to integrating theory and research. Am. Sociol. Rev. 44:881-94. 1982 Race and Ethnic Relations. New York: Prentice-Hall. Conceptualization and Measurement in the Social Sciences. Beverly Hills: Sage. 1986 Multiple causation, indirect measurement and generalizability in the social sciences. Synthese 68:13-36. 987 Group Processes, A power analysis of conflict processes. In Advances vol. IV, ed. E. J. Lawler and B. Markovsky, pp. 1-40. Greenwich, Conn.: [AI Press.

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42 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1989 r ~~ [~rf A: 7~ ~ ~7 A. Beverly Hills: Sage. The real and unreahzed conthhutions of quantkadve sociology.4~. 6~. ~.54:447-60. 1991 I 6~77~: A~g J77~ ;~ Beverly Hills: Sage.

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