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tBio~raphicat Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENC

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE ORBITED SlAlES OF AMERICA VOLUME ~ NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1995

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-05238-6 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE JACOB AALL BONNEVIE BJERKNES BY ARNT ELIASSEN HUBERT MORSE BLALOCK, JR. BY HERBERT L. COSTNER MIN CHUEH CHANG BY ROY O. GREEP GEORGE CONSTANTIN COTZIAS BY VINCENT P. DOLE FREDERICK RUSSELL EGGAN BY EVON Z. VOGT, JR. WALTER M. ELSASSER BY HARRY RUBIN EARNEST ALBERT HOOTON BY STANLEY M. GARN AND EUGENE GILES ARTHUR S. KING BY ROBERT B. KING v V11 3 23 45 63 85 103 167 181

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V1 HERMAN FRANCIS MARK BY HERBERT MORAWETZ BARBARA McCLINTOCK BY NINA V. FEDOROFF IRVINE HEINLY PAGE BY HARRIET P. DUSTAN CONTENTS WILLIAM GUMMING ROSE BY HERBERT E. CARTER AND MINOR J. COON CARL FREDERIC SCHMIDT BY GEORGE B. KOELLE JOHN CLARK SHEEHAN BY E. ]. COREY AND JOHN D. ROBERTS WILLIAM BRADFORD SHOCKLEY BY5OHN L. MOLL EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER BY5AMES E. OFFICER GEORGE STREISINGER BY FRANKLIN W. STAHL HAROLD CLAYTON UREY BY5AMES R. ARNOLD, JACOB BIGELEISEN, AND CLYDE A. HUTCHISON JR. CARROLL MILTON WILLIAMS BY A. M. PAPPENHEIMER, JR. JERROLD R. ZACHARIAS BY NORMAN F. RAMSEY 195 211 237 253 273 291 305 325 353 363 413 435

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PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scien- tists, electecl for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be caller! upon to advise the fecleral government. As an institution the Acaclemy's goal is to work toward in- creasing scientific knowledge en cl to further the use of that knowleclge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1LS77, are a series of volumes containing the life histories ant] selected bibliogra- phies of cleceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most clistinguished leaders in the sci- ences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the woricI. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary . . V11

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