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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program REFERENCES Adams, R.M., K.J. Bryant, B.A. McCarl, D.M. Legler, J. O'Brien, and A. Solow 1995. The value of improved ENSO forecasts: An example from U.S. agriculture. Contemporary Economic Policy 13, 10–19. Anderson, D.L.T. and P.B. Rowlands 1976. The role of inertia-gravity and planetary waves in the response of a tropical ocean to the incidence of an equatorial Kelvin wave on a meridional boundary. J. Mar. Res. 34, 295–312. Anderson, S.P., R.A. Weller, and R. Lukas 1996. Surface buoyancy forcing and the mixed layer of the western Pacific warm pool: Observations and 1-D model results. J. Climate 9, 3056–3085. Atlas, R., S.C. Bloom, R.N. Hoffman, J. Ardizzone, and G. Brin 1991. Space-based surface wind vectors to aid understanding of air-sea interactions. EOS 72, 201–208. Bacastow, R.B. 1976. Modulation of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Oscillation. Nature 261, 116–118. Balmaseda, M.A., M.K. Davey, and D.L.T. Anderson 1995: Decadal and seasonal dependence of ENSO prediction skill. J. Climate 8, 2705–2715. Barber, R.T. 1988. The ocean basin ecosystem. In Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology, J.J. Alberts and L. R. Pomeroy (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 166–188. Barber, R.T. and F.P. Chavez 1983. Biological consequences of El Niño. Science 222, 1203–1210. Barnett, T.P. 1981. Statistical prediction of North American air temperatures from Pacific predictors. Mon. Weather Rev. 109, 1021–1041. Barnett, T.P. 1984. Interaction of the monsoon and Pacific trade wind system at interannual time scales. Part III: A partial anatomy of the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Weather Rev. 112, 2388–2400. Barnett, T.P. 1985. Variations in near-global sea level pressure. J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 478–500. Barnett, T.P., N.E. Graham, M.A. Cane, S.E. Zebiak, S.C. Dolan, J.J. O'Brien, and D.M. Legler 1988. On the prediction of the El Niño of 1986–1987. Science 241, 192–196. Barnett, T.P., L. Dumenil, U. Schlese, E. Roeckler, and M. Latif 1989. The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 661–685. Barnett, T.P., M. Latif, E. Kirk, and E. Roeckner 1991. On ENSO physics. J. Climate 4, 487–515. Barnston, A.G. and C.F. Ropelewski 1992. Prediction of ENSO episodes using canonical correlation analysis. J. Climate 5, 1316–1345.

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