APPENDICES

A. MEMBERS OF THE TOGA PANEL

Richard T. Barber, 1987–90

Tim P. Barnett, 1984–86

Maurice Blackmon, 1987–90

Otis B. Brown, 1985–91

Antonio J. Busalacchi, 1989–96

Mark A. Cane, 1984–89

Robert E. Dickinson, 1994–96

Steven Esbensen, 1988–96

Rana A. Fine, 1990–94

David Halpern, 1990–96

D. Edmunds Harrison, 1988–90

Dennis L. Hartmann, 1990–96

Paul R. Julian, 1986–89

Eli J. Katz, 1984–86

Robert A. Knox, 1991–96

Ants Leetmaa, 1984–87, 1992–96

Roger Lukas, 1988–96

Pearn P. Niiler, 1987–90

S. George H. Philander, 1984–87

Eugene M. Rasmusson, 1984–86

Edward S. Sarachik, 1991–96, Chair 1992–96

Jagadish Shukla, 1984–92, Chair 1989–92

Joanne Simpson, 1991–94

Kevin E. Trenberth, 1984–87

John M. Wallace, 1985–90, Chair 1985–89

Ferris Webster, 1984–85, Chair 1984

Peter J. Webster, 1984–86

John A. Young, 1985–91

Stephen E. Zebiak, 1990–96



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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program APPENDICES A. MEMBERS OF THE TOGA PANEL Richard T. Barber, 1987–90 Tim P. Barnett, 1984–86 Maurice Blackmon, 1987–90 Otis B. Brown, 1985–91 Antonio J. Busalacchi, 1989–96 Mark A. Cane, 1984–89 Robert E. Dickinson, 1994–96 Steven Esbensen, 1988–96 Rana A. Fine, 1990–94 David Halpern, 1990–96 D. Edmunds Harrison, 1988–90 Dennis L. Hartmann, 1990–96 Paul R. Julian, 1986–89 Eli J. Katz, 1984–86 Robert A. Knox, 1991–96 Ants Leetmaa, 1984–87, 1992–96 Roger Lukas, 1988–96 Pearn P. Niiler, 1987–90 S. George H. Philander, 1984–87 Eugene M. Rasmusson, 1984–86 Edward S. Sarachik, 1991–96, Chair 1992–96 Jagadish Shukla, 1984–92, Chair 1989–92 Joanne Simpson, 1991–94 Kevin E. Trenberth, 1984–87 John M. Wallace, 1985–90, Chair 1985–89 Ferris Webster, 1984–85, Chair 1984 Peter J. Webster, 1984–86 John A. Young, 1985–91 Stephen E. Zebiak, 1990–96

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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program B. TOGA PRODUCTS TOGA CD-ROMs. The 1994 edition consisted of 1985–1990 TOGA data. It included: sea surface temperature, sub-surface thermal data, surface marine observations, TAO data, pseudo-stress fields, cloud data, precipitation data, sea levels, and associated ECMWF analyses. The 6-CD package and Users' Guide available from: User Services Office, MS300/320 JPL PO.DAAC Jet Propulsion Laboratory 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91109. Climate Diagnostics Bulletin. Published monthly since 1982. Contains: (1) monthly means and anomalies in the tropics of sea surface temperature, outgoing long-wave radiation, winds, pressure, susbsurface ocean thermal structure, and sea level; (2) Forecast Forum; and (3) monthly means and anomalies in the extratropics of sea-level pressure, height of the 500-mb surface, and indices of “teleconnections”. Available from: Climate Prediction Center Attn: Climate Diagnostics Bulletin NOAA/NWS/NCEP World Weather Building, Room 605 5200 Auth Road Washington, DC 20233. The bulletin is also available on the World Wide Web from site (http://nic.fb4.noaa.gov). Experimental Long Lead Forecast Bulletin. Published quarterly since 1992. Contains: experimental forecasts of tropical sea surface temperature, Southern Oscillation Index, rainfall, Atlantic storm activity, U.S. surface conditions and precipitation, and South African rainfall. Available from: Climate Prediction Center, W/NMC51 Attn: Experimental Long Lead Bulletin NOAA/NWS/NCEP World Weather Building 5200 Auth Road Washington, DC 20233.

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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program Monitor Climático. Published monthly since 1987 in Portugese. Contains: monthly precipitation in northeast Brazil, monthly position of the Atlantic Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, monthly means and anomalies of tropical sea surface temperature, monthly means and anomalies of tropical sea-level pressure, monthly mean and anomalies of outgoing long-wave radiation, and monthly means and anomalies of winds at heights of both 850 mb and 200 mb. Available from: Divisão de Tempo e Clima Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídrocos—FUNCEME Av. Bezerra de Menezes, No 1.900—São Gerardo Caixa Postal D-3221 Fortaleza, BRAZIL. World Wide Web Products. A number of products have become available on the World Wide Web. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and descriptions are listed below. Web sites are subject to frequent change. Climate Prediction Center of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction site (http://nic.fb4.noaa.gov) provides prediction products and data products relevant to ENSO and to its effects on U.S. climate. Lamont-Doherty Climate Group site (http://rainbow.ldgo.columbia.edu) provides data products, ENSO advisories, and forecasts of ENSO using the Zebiak-Cane model. NOAA/Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory (PMEL) site (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/toga-tao/realtime.html) points to the latest data on surface and subsurface conditions in the tropical Pacific. It also provides tools for obtaining past TOGA TAO data. Also available from PMEL is a site (http://www.pmel.gov/toga-tao/el-nino/home.html) that gives a good introduction to ENSO and its effects. The site also points to ENSO prediction information. Global Change Master Directory site (http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov) guides users to climate data, including satellite data. National Climatic Data Center site (http://www.ncdc.gov) contains guides to online data services and climatological products. It also points to the Climate Variations Bulletin, which documents monthly climate anomalies, mostly over the United States. Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies site (http:/grads.iges.org/home.html) points to coupled-model forecasts of ENSO and other related sites.

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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program University of Hawaii School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology site (http://www.soest.hawaii.edu) provides data from the Hawaii Sea Level Data Center and points to other online data centers. NOAA Seasonal-to-Interannual site (http://www.noaa.gov/seasonal.html) gives NOAA's plans and rationale for predictions of seasonal-to-interannual climate variations. NOAA Office of Global Programs site (http://www.noaa.gov/ogpl) points to El Niño information and the status of the International Research Institute (for Climate Prediction). Florida State University site (http://coaps.fsu.edu) provides a guide to a number of meteorological and oceanographic servers. University of Washington site (http://www.atmos.washington.edu) (choose “Local Resources”) provides precipitation climatologies of the tropics, a T-POP reference list, and pointers to other meteorological servers.

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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program C. ACRONYMS AND OTHER ABBREVIATIONS ADCP acoustic Doppler current profiler ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (Japan) AIREP Aircraft En-Route Report AMEX Australian Monsoon Experiment AOML Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA) ARGOS ARGOS Data Collection and Platform Location System (provided by France) ATLAS Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System ATM Atmospheric Sciences Division (NSF) AVHRR Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer BSN Basic Synoptic Network (of the World Weather Watch) C carbon C&GC Climate and Global Change (NOAA) CAC Climate Analysis Center, now CPC (NOAA) CCCO Committee for Climate Change and the Ocean CEPEX Central Pacific Experiment CLIVAR Study of Climate Variability and Predictability (WCRP) CO2 carbon dioxide COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment CPC Climate Prediction Center (NOAA) CRC Climate Research Committee (NRC) CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DOE Department of Energy ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting EMEX Equatorial Monsoon Experiment ENSO El Niño and the Southern Oscillation EOF empirical orthogonal function EPOCS Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies EqPac Equatorial pacific Experiment ERS Earth Resources Satellite (ESA) ESA European Space Agency EUC Equatorial Undercurrent FOCAL Français Océan Climate Atlantique Equatorial (SEQUAL/FOCAL) FGGE First GARP Global Experiment FUNCEME Ceara Foundation for Meteorology and Hydrological Resources (Northeast Brazil) ftp file-transfer protocol

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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program GARP Global Atmospheric Research Program GATE GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment GCM general-circulation model GCOS Global Climate Observing System Geosat Geodesy satellite (U.S. Navy) GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA) GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA) GOALS Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System program GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOOS Global Ocean Observing System GPCP Global precipitation Climatology Project GTS Global Telecommunication System ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions IFA Intensive Flux Array INDEX Indian Ocean Experiment IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission IOP intensive observation period IRICP International Research Institute for Climate Prediction ITPO International TOGA Project Office IUGG International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone JGOFS Joint Global Ocean Flux Study JMA Japan Meteorological Agency JOC Joint Organizing Committee (WCRP) JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory JSC Joint Scientific Committee (WCRP) LIA Line Islands Array MDCRS Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting Systems MONEG Monsoon Experimentation Group MTPE Mission to Planet Earth (NASA) NASA National Aeronuatics and Space Administration NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NOAA) NECC North Equatorial Countercurrent NMC National Meteorological Center, now NCEP (NOAA) NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NORPAX North Pacific Experiment NOS National Ocean Service NRC National Research Council NROSS Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System NSCAT NASA Scatterometer NSF National Science Foundation OCE Ocean Sciences Division (NSF)

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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program OLR outgoing long-wave radiation OMB Office of Management and the Budget ONR Office of Naval Research OSSE observing-system simulation experiment pCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide PEQUOD Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics Experiment PMEL Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory ppmv parts per million by volume SEQUAL Seasonal Equatorial Atlantic Experiment (SEQUAL/FOCAL) SCPP Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate Prediction Program (NOAA) SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer SOI Southern Oscillation Index SSG Scientific Steering Group SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager Sv sverdrup, 106m3/s SWG science working group TAO Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean TCIPO TOGA COARE International Project Office TIROS Television Infrared Observation Satellite TIWE Tropical Instability Wave Experiment TOGA Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere Program TOPEX/Poseidon Ocean Topography Experiment (Poseidon is the French component of the experiment) T-POP TOGA Program on Prediction TSLC TOGA Sea Level Center U.N. United Nations UNCED U.N. Conference on Environment and Development UNESCO U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program VACM vector-averaging current meter VMCM vector-measuring current meter VOS volunteer observing ship WEPOCS Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study WESTRAX Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment WCRP World Climate Research Programme WMO World Meteorological Organization WWW World Weather Watch (WMO) XBT expendable bathythermograph XCTD expendable conductivity-temperature-depth probe

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Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program This page in the original is blank.