Appendix G
Federal Funding

Both the source and amount of funding for aviation weather services have a profound impact on aviation weather services and related research. The amount of funding defines the overall level of effort that federal agencies devote to aviation weather services. In addition, the distribution of funding defines which agencies have practical control over the specific aviation weather programs. As shown in tables G-1 and G-2, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) are the primary source of federal funding for aviation weather services and related research. Although the National Weather Service (NWS) provides many important services related to aviation, the FAA has specific agreements with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to reimburse it for most of the aviation-specific services and research that it provides. Similarly, NOAA pays the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to procure and launch meteorological satellites. During fiscal year 1995, such interagency transfers amounted to $79 million (from the FAA to NOAA) and $256 million (from NOAA to NASA).

TABLE G-1 Federal Budget Summary For Meteorological Services, Fiscal Year (FY) 1992–1996 (millions of dollars)a (Source: OFCM, 1992–1995)

 

 

FY 1992

FY 1993

FY 1994

FY 1995

FY 1996

FAA

All areas

$396

$349

$360

$426

$333

 

Aviation only

396

349

360

426

333

NOAA/NWS

All areas

826

870

1,090

1,084

1,218

 

Aviation only

35

36

50

36

36

DoD

All areas

665

523

506

504

464

 

Aviation only

192

362

329

326

296

NASA

All areas

7

7

8

4

4

 

Aviation onlyb

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Other Federal Agencies

All areas

14

18

20

20

19

 

Aviation only

0

0

0

0

0

Federal Government Total

All areas

$1,908

$1,767

$1,984

$2,038

$2,038

 

Aviation only

623

747

739

787

664

a Funding for fiscal years 1992–1995 reflects congressionally appropriated funds. Funding for fiscal year 1996 reflects the amount requested in the President's fiscal year 1996 budget submission to Congress. Figures may not total due to rounding.

b These figures are not available because NASA does not break down fuming for meteorological services into application areas such as aviation.



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--> Appendix G Federal Funding Both the source and amount of funding for aviation weather services have a profound impact on aviation weather services and related research. The amount of funding defines the overall level of effort that federal agencies devote to aviation weather services. In addition, the distribution of funding defines which agencies have practical control over the specific aviation weather programs. As shown in tables G-1 and G-2, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) are the primary source of federal funding for aviation weather services and related research. Although the National Weather Service (NWS) provides many important services related to aviation, the FAA has specific agreements with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to reimburse it for most of the aviation-specific services and research that it provides. Similarly, NOAA pays the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to procure and launch meteorological satellites. During fiscal year 1995, such interagency transfers amounted to $79 million (from the FAA to NOAA) and $256 million (from NOAA to NASA). TABLE G-1 Federal Budget Summary For Meteorological Services, Fiscal Year (FY) 1992–1996 (millions of dollars)a (Source: OFCM, 1992–1995)     FY 1992 FY 1993 FY 1994 FY 1995 FY 1996 FAA All areas $396 $349 $360 $426 $333   Aviation only 396 349 360 426 333 NOAA/NWS All areas 826 870 1,090 1,084 1,218   Aviation only 35 36 50 36 36 DoD All areas 665 523 506 504 464   Aviation only 192 362 329 326 296 NASA All areas 7 7 8 4 4   Aviation onlyb N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Other Federal Agencies All areas 14 18 20 20 19   Aviation only 0 0 0 0 0 Federal Government Total All areas $1,908 $1,767 $1,984 $2,038 $2,038   Aviation only 623 747 739 787 664 a Funding for fiscal years 1992–1995 reflects congressionally appropriated funds. Funding for fiscal year 1996 reflects the amount requested in the President's fiscal year 1996 budget submission to Congress. Figures may not total due to rounding. b These figures are not available because NASA does not break down fuming for meteorological services into application areas such as aviation.

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--> TABLE G-2 Federal Budget Summary For Meteorological Research, FY 1992–1996 (millions of dollars)a (Source: OFCM, 1992–1995)     FY 1992 FY 1993 FY 1994 FY 1995 FY 1996 FAA All areas $28 $34 $26 $19 $23   Aviation only 28 34 26 19 23 NOAA/NWS All areas 54 47 79 88 89   Aviation only 2 2 2 2 2 DoD All areas 89 69 99 104 100   Aviation only 0 11 25 53 35 NASA All areas 153 155 166 164 145   Aviation onlyb N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Other Federal Agencies All areas 21 24 24 24 24   Aviation only 0 0 0 0 0 Federal Government Total All areas $346 $329 $393 $400 $381   Aviation only 30 46 63 73 59 a Funding for fiscal years 1992–1995 reflects congressionally appropriated funds. Funding for fiscal year 1996 reflects the amount requested in the President's fiscal year 1996 budget submission to Congress. Figures may not total due to rounding. b These figures are not available because NASA does not break down funding for meteorological research into application areas such as aviation. TABLE G-3 FAA Budget Summary, FY 1993–1996 (millions of dollars) (Source: FAA)   Fy 1993 FY 1994 FY 1995 FY 1996 Aviation Trust Fund Receipts $6,100 $6,279 $6,509 $6,700* Total Budget Authority $8,910 $8,644 $8,644 8,380* FAA Grants-in-aid 1,800 1,690 1,450 1,500* Operations 4,530 4,580 4,591 4,704* Facilities and Equipment 2,350 2,120 2,087 1,908* Research, Engineering, and Development 230 254 259 268* * Estimates Unlike most federal agencies, the budget of the FAA is supported primarily by taxes levied directly on users of agency services (see Table G-3). In particular, the Aviation Trust Fund receives taxes collected on airline tickets, aviation fuel, air cargo, and international passenger departures. (During 1993, 88 percent of trust-fund receipts derived from the airline ticket tax.) The trust fund is then used to fund a portion of the FAA's activities as well as grants-in-aid to help pay for improvements in domestic airports and airways. However, trust-fund expenditures have not kept pace with receipts. Although the trust funds received $6.1 billion during fiscal year 1993, the government transferred $1.9 billion to the general treasury, leaving the trust fund with a net income of only $4.2 billion. In addition, in order to reduce the size of the federal budget deficit, the federal government has not authorized the expenditure of all funds collected by the trust fund. As of March 1995, this had produced an unexpended surplus of about $12 billion that could have been used to hasten improvements to air traffic management and aviation weather systems. As shown in Table G-3, the FAA has been challenged in recent years by reductions in funding, but smaller budgets have not been accompanied by a lessening of the FAA's roles and missions. In order to accommodate these reductions, the FAA has responded by trying to eliminate funding for some functions (e.g., the Direct User Access Terminal Service, DUATS) and revising the way it provides others (e.g., the consolidation and modernization of its Flight Service Stations, FSSs). This has sometimes resulted in negative feedback from members of the public who use the services that the FAA provides, and the FAA has had to continue funding some services that it planned to discontinue (e.g., DUATS) and to modify proposed changes to other systems (e.g., FSSs). Table G-4 illustrates how FAA expenses are allocated among its major facilities and user groups.

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--> TABLE G-4 The FAA's Allocated Costs of Providing Air Traffic Control Services to Various User Groups, Fiscal Year 1993 (millions of dollars) (Source: DOT, 1994)   Air Carrier Air Taxi & Commuter General Aviation Military Total ARTCCs $1,661 $447 $406 $606 $3,120 (50 %) Facilities at Major Airportsa 1,191 678 350 330 $2,549 (41%) Other Towers 16 21 150 25 $211 (3%) FSSs 5 15 357 9 $385 (6%) Total $2,872 (46%) $1,160 (19%) $1,262 (20%) $969 (15%) $6,264 (100% a This represents the cost of control towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities at airports that have TRACONs. ''Other towers'' are towers located at airports without TRACONs. References DOT (Department of Transportation). 1994. Air Traffic Control Corporation Study—Report of the Executive Oversight Committee to the Department of Transportation. Washington, D.C.: DOT. OFCM (Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology). 1992. The Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, Fiscal Year 1993. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce. OFCM. 1993. The Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, Fiscal Year 1994. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce. OFCM. 1994. The Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, Fiscal Year 1995. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce. OFCM. 1995. The Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, Fiscal Year 1996. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce.