TABLE 5-2 Disorders of the Nervous System in the African Female Across Her Life Span

Time of Life

Disorders

Intrauterine

Congenital malformations from maternal malnutrition and infections

Cretinism from maternal iodine deficiency and goitrogenic diet, including cassava diet

Low birthweight from maternal malnutrition may cause poor neurodevelopment, increased occurrence or risk in later life of high blood pressure; and mortality from cardiovascular disease, including stroke (Barker et al., 1989a,b; Edwards et al., 1993; Law et al., 1993, 1991; Seldman et al., 1991; Whincup et al., 1989)

Infancy (0–1 year)

Congenital malformations

Impaired neurodevelopment from malnutrition

Febrile convulsions

Meningitides, encephalitides (including parainfectious encephalomyelitis), poliomyelitis

Cerebral malaria

Epilepsies

Childhood (1–9 years)

Cerebral malaria

Meningitides and encephalitides (including parainfectious encephalomyelitis), poliomyelitis

Epilepsies

Migraine

Cerebrovascular disease

Lymphomas (especially Burkitt's) of nervous system

Adolescence (10–19 years)

Migraine

Epilepsies

Meningitides and encephalitides, cerebral abscess

Adulthood (20–45 years)

Epilepsies

Migraine

Meningitides, encephalitides, trypanosomiasis, cerebral malaria

Head injuries

Nutritional and toxic myeloneuropathies and peripheral nerve disorders

Nervous system involvement from choriocarcinoma

Polymyositis, myasthenia gravis

Demyelinating diseases (often monophasic, as Devic's disease)

Neurological complications of snake bites

Menopause/late adulthood (46–65 years)

Cerebrovascular disease

Migraine

Nutritional and toxic myeloneuropathies and peripheral nerve disorders

Epilepsies

Spinal cord and spinal nerve root disorders secondary to osteodegenerative disease of vertebral column

Brain and spinal cord neoplasms (primary and secondary)

Head injuries

Polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis

Elderly (> 65 years)

Cerebrovascular disease

Spinal cord and spinal nerve root disorders secondary to osteodegenerative disease of the vertebral column (spine)

Brain and spinal cord neoplasms

Head injuries

Parkinson's disease

Cognitive impairment/dementia



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