Index

A

Abusive Behavior Inventory, 16

Administration for Children and Families, 148, 149

Advertising Council, 97

Advocacy services, 105-106, 108, 110, 112, 128, 141 n.1

African Americans, 26, 27, 29-31, 34, 40-41, 78, 81, 103, 118, 133

Age

homicide victims, 24-25, 32

and recovery from violence, 80

and violence against women, 19, 32, 71-72

Alaska Natives, 42

Alcohol use/alcoholism

in victims, 70, 71, 72-73, 80, 83

and violent offending, 53, 54-56

American Indians, 42

American Medical Association, 109

American Psychological Association, Task Force on Male Violence Against Women, 10

Antistalking laws, 18, 130

Asian Americans, 41, 80, 103

Athletic team sports, 63

Attitudes, and violent offending, 58-59

Avoidance/resistance strategies, 98-99

B

Battered woman syndrome, 84, 140

Battered women, 17.

See also Intimate partner violence

Battered Women's Justice Project, 149

Batterers

arrest, 98, 110, 116-118, 141 n.3

characteristics of, 50, 56, 57, 62, 73-74

counseling/educational groups, 106, 122, 131-133

couples therapy, 133-134

courts and judicial processing, 121-123

homicides of, 25



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--> Index A Abusive Behavior Inventory, 16 Administration for Children and Families, 148, 149 Advertising Council, 97 Advocacy services, 105-106, 108, 110, 112, 128, 141 n.1 African Americans, 26, 27, 29-31, 34, 40-41, 78, 81, 103, 118, 133 Age homicide victims, 24-25, 32 and recovery from violence, 80 and violence against women, 19, 32, 71-72 Alaska Natives, 42 Alcohol use/alcoholism in victims, 70, 71, 72-73, 80, 83 and violent offending, 53, 54-56 American Indians, 42 American Medical Association, 109 American Psychological Association, Task Force on Male Violence Against Women, 10 Antistalking laws, 18, 130 Asian Americans, 41, 80, 103 Athletic team sports, 63 Attitudes, and violent offending, 58-59 Avoidance/resistance strategies, 98-99 B Battered woman syndrome, 84, 140 Battered women, 17. See also Intimate partner violence Battered Women's Justice Project, 149 Batterers arrest, 98, 110, 116-118, 141 n.3 characteristics of, 50, 56, 57, 62, 73-74 counseling/educational groups, 106, 122, 131-133 couples therapy, 133-134 courts and judicial processing, 121-123 homicides of, 25

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--> prosecution, 98, 118-119 protective orders, 120-121 self-reporting by, 32 stalking behavior, 18, 121, 130 Battering. See Intimate partner violence Bureau of Justice Statistics, 27-28 C California Wellness Foundation, 149-150 Canada, 27, 36 Canadian Violence Against Women Survey, 34 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5, 27-28, 104, 147-148, 150, 152 Child abuse, 16-17, 19, 62, 70, 71, 73-74, 84-85 Cognitive processing intervention, 101 Commonwealth Fund, 150 Confidentiality issues, 28, 109 Conflict resolution programs, 94-95 Conflict Tactic Scales, 14, 16 Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, 150 Consequences of violence against women economic, 87-88 to family and friends, 2, 84-86 indirect costs, 88-89 physical, 75-78 psychological, 1, 79-84, 86-87 to society, 2, 86-89 to victims, 74-84 Context issues definitional, 13-14 research needs, 47-48 in surveys, 38, 43, 45-46 Counseling and peer support for offenders, 106, 122, 130, 131-133 for victims, 99-100, 112 Couples therapy, 100, 130, 133-134 Criminal justice services. See also Interventions with offenders; specific services and types of offenders arrest/law enforcement, 116-118, 120, 128-129 courts and judicial processing, 121-123 and deterrence, 97-98, 115, 118, 122-124 interventions for victims, 109-111, 151 prosecution of perpetrators, 118-119, 128-129 protective orders, 120-121 training projects, 149 statutory reforms, 124-128 Cultural mores, and violent offending, 50, 59, 67-68 D Dating, rape and violence, 17, 20, 65-66, 72, 95, 96 Definitions acquaintance, 17 incidence, 28 intimate partner violence, 10 physical violence, 13-14 prevalence, 28-29 psychological abuse, 15-18 rape, 11-12 sexual assault, 12-13 stalking, 18 violence, 9-10 violence against women, 8-11, 35, 44-45 Depression, 79-80 Deviance disavowal theories, 56 Domestic violence, 17, 87 Domestic Violence Prevention Project, 150 Domestic Violence Resource Network, 149

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--> E Emotional abuse. See Psychological abuse Evolution, and violent offending, 49-50, 51-52 F Family consequences of violence to, 84-86 and violent offending, 62, 70 Family Violence Prevention Fund, 97, 149-150 Fatal violence, statistics, 7, 24-27, 76 Fear, 8, 10-11, 76, 79, 81, 82, 86-87, 98, 101, 109-110 Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports, 12, 24, 28 , 128 Firearms, 26 Ford Foundation, 150 G Gender issues interviewer sex, 38-39 schema, and violent offending, 50, 58-59 sex role stereotypes, 62-63 H Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence, 149 Health services, 108-109 Hispanics, 29, 30, 34, 41, 78, 80, 81, 103 Homelessness, 88, 103 Homicides economic costs, 87 statistics, 24-27, 76. See also Fatal violence, statistics Hormones, and aggression, 52, 53 I Immigrants, 42 Indianapolis Domestic Violence Prosecution Experiment, 119 Intentionality issue, 13, 15 International studies, 36-37 Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, 107 Interventions for victims. See also Preventive interventions and batterer homicides, 25 community-level, 101-114 crisis-oriented services, 101-108 evaluation of, 100-101 individual-level, 99-101 service-seeking behavior, 39, 111-114 Interventions with offenders batterers, 116-124, 131-134 coordinated community responses, 123-124 criminal justice, 114-130 culturally relevant programs, 132-133 sex offenders, 124-129, 134-136 stalkers, 129-130 treatment, 130-136 Intimate partner violence. See also Batterers biopsychosocial model of, 68 childhood abuse and, 62 definitions, 9-10 evolutionary theory of, 52 fatal, 25-27 legal support for, 65 metatheories of, 50, 69 physical consequences, 77-78 power motives, 59-60 prosecution of, 119-120 rape, 12, 28, 43, 65, 78, 127-128 reporting of, 28, 33, 40-41, 117 statistics, 1, 7, 23, 32-34

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--> L Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, 141 n.2 Lesbians, 21 n.2 M Media prevention roles, 96-97 and violent offending, 63-64 Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, 116, 117 Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women, 95 Models/modeling, multifactorial, for violent offending, 68-69 Moslem women, 80 N National Center for Health Statistics, 24 National Center for Prevention and Control of Rape, 29 National Clearinghouse on Marital and Date Rape, 128 National Crime Victimization Survey, 8, 20, 29, 32-33, 117, 128 National Family Violence Surveys, 23, 29, 33, 38, 114, 118, 141 n.2 National Institute of Justice, 5-6, 116, 147, 148-149, 150, 151 National Institute of Mental Health, 10, 141 n.2, 149, 152 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 149 National Institutes of Health, 5, 148, 150 National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, 149, 156 n.1 National Science Foundation, 6, 151 National Television Violence Study, 64, 97 National Women's Study, 29 Neurophysiology, and violent offending, 52-54 Neurotransmitters, 52, 53-54 New York Community Trust, 150 Norman Foundation, 150 P Personality traits of victims, 70-71 of violent offenders, 50, 55, 56-58, 60, 62, 63 Physical violence. See also Intimate partner violence defining, 13-14 measures of, 14 psychological abuse with, 16-17, 69 Physiology, and violent offending, 49, 52-54 Pornography, 63 Posttraumatic stress syndrome in victims, 80, 81-84, 91 n.1, 101, 113, 129, 140 in violent offenders, 56 Pregnant women, 44, 76, 78 Preventive interventions deterrence, 97-98 evaluation of, 40, 95-96 goals, 93-94, 148 media roles, 96-97 research centers, 152-155 school-based programs, 94-96, 137 youth programs, 137-138 Protective orders, 26, 98, 110-111, 112, 120-121 PSTD. See Posttraumatic stress syndrome Psychological abuse categories of behavior, 15-16 of children, 16-17 definitional issues, 11, 15-18

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--> measurement of, 16 and physical violence, 16-17, 69 Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory, 16 Psychopathology, and violent offending, 52, 56-58 R Race/ethnicity and criminal justice processing, 129 cultural sensitivity of researchers and practitioners, 146-147 data gaps, 40 and homicide rates, 26-27 interventions targeting, 132-133, 139-140 measures and instruments specific for, 42-43 patterns in violence against women, 29-30, 78 and recovery from violence, 80-81 and reporting of violence, 40-41 and shelter use, 103 Rape. See also Sexual assault acquaintance attacks, 55, 61-62, 81, 98 age and, 20, 71-72 avoidance strategies, 98, 99 awareness/education programs, 67, 94-95 crisis centers, 76, 107-108, 112-114, 128 date, 17-18, 61-62 defining, 11-12, 38, 125 evolutionary theory, 52 fear of, 8, 10-11, 76, 98 homicides, 76 laws and reforms, 12, 65, 111, 115, 124-128, 140 marital, 12, 28, 43, 65, 127, 128 myths, 59, 66-67, 129 physical consequences, 75-77 reporting of, 28, 33, 57, 81, 111 resistance strategies, 72, 98-99 shield provisions, 111, 125, 126 statistics, 1, 8, 23, 33, 67-68 types of, 67-68 Rape trauma syndrome, 82, 140 Rapists and sex offenders characteristics, 57-58, 60, 62, 63 convictions, 125-126, 128 interventions, 124-129, 131, 134-136 prediction of future dangerousness, 136 prosecution of, 81, 98, 128 recidivism, 135-136 Relationship stage, and violent offending, 61-62 Religion, and violent offending, 63 Research on violence available data, use of, 39-40 confidentiality concerns, 28 data sources, 24, 27-29, 43-44 and definitions, 8-9, 13, 35, 44-45 findings, 29-34 funding, 147-150, 151 gaps in data, 40-44, 46, 74-75, 114 life-span perspective, 75 methodological issues, 8, 33, 34-39, 42, 44-45, 56, 71, 85, 104-105, 132, 134 outcome measures, 104-105, 136-137 rape crisis services, 108 sample populations, 34, 40-42, 45, 74-75, 85, 90 shelter studies, 104-106 status of, 8 training of researchers and practitioners, 139, 144-147, 153 Research recommendations building knowledge, 4-5, 152-155 consequences of violence, 89-91 context of violence, 47-48

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--> criminal justice system, 140-141 definitions and measurement, 44-47 government coordination and leadership, 150-152 infrastructure development, 5-6. 150-155 instruments and measures, 45-47 longitudinal research, 90 methodological improvements, 3-4, 44-45 multidisciplinary centers, 152-155 offender interventions, 139-140 outcome measures, 136-137 panel's charge and scope, 2, 18-20 preventive interventions, 2-3, 137-138 victim interventions, 138-139 Resource Center on Child Protection and Custody, 149 Risk factors, for victimization, 70-73 Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, 150 S Schools preventive intervention programs, 67, 94-96, 137 and violent offending, 62-63 Serotonin, 52, 53 Sex offenders. See Rapists and sex offenders Sex versus power motives for violent offending, 59-60 Sexual abuse, 12-13, 125 Sexual assault. See also Rape age and, 20, 32 data collection methods, 34-35 defining, 12, 112-113, 125 physical consequences, 75-77 reporting of, 109-110, 127 statistics, 1, 8, 32, 34 Sexual assault nurse examiner programs, 109 Sexual battery, 12 Sexual scripts, and violent offending, 65-67 Sexually aggressive men, 57, 58-59, 60, 66 Sexually transmitted diseases, 76 Shelters and shelter programs, 101-107, 111-112, 114 Social information processing, 50, 55-56, 60-61, 73 Social learning, and violent offending, 50, 60-62, 85, 131 Socioeconomic status and reporting of violence, 40-41 of shelter users, 102-103 Somatization disorder, 77 Spouse abuse. See Intimate partner violence Spouse Assault Replication Program, 116 Stalking defining, 18 interventions, 18, 121, 129-130 Statistics fatal violence, 24-27 intimate partner violence, 1, 7, 23 nonfatal violence, 27-44 official data, 27-28 rape, 1, 8, 23 surveys, 28-29 Stress inoculation training, 101 Suicide, 79-80, 83 T Television/cinema violence, 64 U U.S. Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence, 114-115

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--> U.S. Department of Education, 6, 148, 151 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 152 U.S. Department of Justice, 147, 151, 152 U.S. Department of Labor, 148 V Victimization/victims. See also Interventions for victims examination and treatment, 109 patterns of, 7-9 personality traits, 70-71 physical effects of violence, 74-78, 87-88 productivity losses, 88-89, 91 prosecution of offenders, 118-119 psychological effects of violence, 76-77, 79-84, 86, 89, 91 n.1, 112 risk factors for, 32, 70-73 and service utilization, 100-101, 111-114, 120, 138-139, 149 Violence Against Women Act of 1994, 2, 18, 115, 124, 143, 151 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 18, 115 Violent offending. See also Batterers; Interventions with offenders; Rapists and sex offenders childhood predictors of, 137-138 deterrence, 97-98 dyadic contexts, 61-62 individual determinants, 51-61 institutional influences, 62-64 multifactoral models, 68-69 societal influences, 64-68 W Wife beating, 65, 67. See also Intimate partner violence Women's Health Initiative, 150