Index

A

Adaptation, 75

Agency for International Development, 93

Agribusiness, 61-62

Agrobacterium radiobacter, 107

Aldrin, 23

Alligator weed, 13, 37

Antibiotics, 57, 78

Apples, 24

Aquatic weeds, 13, 36-37

Arthropod management

appetite suppression, 34

behavioral strategies, 77

biological-control organisms for, 46

chemical signaling strategies, 77-78

in cotton production, 30-31

cultural techniques for, 17-21

exotic pests, 32

genetic engineering strategies, 79-81

growth of chemical insecticide use, 23, 24

historical biological strategies, 12-13

host-range predictions, 102

host selection/specificity dynamics, 81

insecticide selectivity, 48

in IPM, 25-26

nontarget effects, 103

pest resistance problems, 26-28

problems created by pesticide use, 29

use of disease pathogens for, 79

Arthropods, as biological-control organisms

aquatic weed management, 37

characteristics, 46

Australian ladybird beetle, 13

B

Bacillus thuringiensis, 47, 64, 76, 78-79, 98-99, 103, 113

Baculoviruses, 79

Banana plants, 17

Benomyl, 29

Biodiversity, 82-84

Biological-control organisms

aquatic weed management, 36-37

in citrus farming, 50-51

for managing plant viruses, 34

cover crop design, 45

cultural practices to encourage, 20-21

current registration, 96



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OCR for page 137
Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century Index A Adaptation, 75 Agency for International Development, 93 Agribusiness, 61-62 Agrobacterium radiobacter, 107 Aldrin, 23 Alligator weed, 13, 37 Antibiotics, 57, 78 Apples, 24 Aquatic weeds, 13, 36-37 Arthropod management appetite suppression, 34 behavioral strategies, 77 biological-control organisms for, 46 chemical signaling strategies, 77-78 in cotton production, 30-31 cultural techniques for, 17-21 exotic pests, 32 genetic engineering strategies, 79-81 growth of chemical insecticide use, 23, 24 historical biological strategies, 12-13 host-range predictions, 102 host selection/specificity dynamics, 81 insecticide selectivity, 48 in IPM, 25-26 nontarget effects, 103 pest resistance problems, 26-28 problems created by pesticide use, 29 use of disease pathogens for, 79 Arthropods, as biological-control organisms aquatic weed management, 37 characteristics, 46 Australian ladybird beetle, 13 B Bacillus thuringiensis, 47, 64, 76, 78-79, 98-99, 103, 113 Baculoviruses, 79 Banana plants, 17 Benomyl, 29 Biodiversity, 82-84 Biological-control organisms aquatic weed management, 36-37 in citrus farming, 50-51 for managing plant viruses, 34 cover crop design, 45 cultural practices to encourage, 20-21 current registration, 96

OCR for page 137
Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century definition, 46 early farm practices, 12-17 EBPM principles, 46-47 ecosystem interaction, 43-44, 76-82 environmental persistence, 110-111 experimental demonstrations, 18-19 in IPM, 25-26 microbial, 84-85, 103 molecular mechanisms, 76 natural reservoirs, 82-83 nontarget effects, 74, 100-105 objectives, 46 pathogenic potential, 105-108 regulatory environment, 112-114 research needs, 5, 76-82 risk assessment, 8-9, 97, 100, 105, 108-109 scale of use, 110 self-perpetuation of, 110-111 for soybean cyst nematode, 33 specificity, 81 success rate, 70 supply system, 55, 85-86 use of disease pathogens as, 79 Biological-control products definition, 47 potential risks, 98-100 predator-prey population dynamics, 102-103 small-market support, 64, 97-98 specificity, 47, 71 Black scale, 65 Boll weevil, 30-31 Botrytis rot of cyclamen, 29 Broad-spectrum pesticides, 1, 26 naturally occurring, 47 obstacles to continued use, 26-40 use in cotton farming, 30-31 Brown soft scale, 29 C California red scale, 18, 50, 65 Cancer, 40-41 Certification, 64 Chemical signaling, 77-78 Chestnut blight, 17, 80 Chlordane, 23, 38 Citrus farming biological pest control, 50-51 early biological control mechanisms, 12, 13 pest-management cooperatives, 63, 65 pesticide-associated problems, 29 pesticide use, 24 Citrus red mite, 18, 29 Citrus rust mite, 50 Collego®, 104, 106 Commercial development biological management of diseases, 17 genetically engineered plants, 23 growth of chemical pesticide industry, 23-25 health risks for workers, 98 pesticide industry trends, 28-29 regulatory obstacles, 48, 112-115 small-market products, 64, 97-98 Communication among organisms, 77-78 Consultants, 7-8, 10, 62 Corn growth of pesticide use, 24 hybridization, 21 leaf blight, 21 Cost-benefit analysis data base for, 90-91 feasibility of EBPM, 49-56 measuring direct and indirect effects in, 89-90 role of, 89 Cotton, 24 arthropod management strategies, 30-31 pesticide use trends, 24 Cottony cushion scale, 13, 18, 29, 51 Cover crops, 20, 45 Crop rotation, 18-19, 20 for soybean cyst nematode management, 33 Cropping patterns for managing plant viruses, 34 historical applications for biological control, 17-21 landscape ecology, 74-75 predictive models for, 86-87 row crop pests, 35

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century use of cover crops, 45 wheat monoculture for disease control, 22 Crown gall, 17, 107 Cultural approaches, 2, 17 Cryphonectria parasitica, 79, 80 Cyst nematode, 18-19, 33 D DDT, 23, 26, 28, 29, 30, 38, 39 Dibromochloropropane, 23, 33 Dichloropropenes, 23 Dieldrin, 23 Disease management biological-control organisms for, 46-47, 51 development of resistant cultivars for, 82 early biological strategies, 17 fungicide use as obstacle to, 29 genetic diversity of crop species and, 21 genetic engineering for, 22-23 host selection dynamics, 81 limitations of chemical strategies, 34-35 plant resistnace for, 47-49 resistance in pathogens, 28 soil-borne diseases, 32-34 take-all disease in wheat, 22 through monoculture planting, 22 use of disease pathogens for, 79 Durability EBPM objectives, 3, 4, 42, 43, 115 monitoring for pest resistance, 64-68 of plant-host resistance, 87-88 E EBPM. See Ecologically based pest management Ecologically based pest management (EBPM) biodiversity and, 82-84 continuum of tactics, 108 economic feasibility, 49-56, 90 environmental risks, 100 integrated pest management and, 3, 10, 86, 94 knowledge base, 3, 43, 69, 70-71 leadership, 93-94 objectives, 3-4, 42-44, 115 principles, 2-3, 10, 44-46 research needs, 4-8 use of biological-control organisms, 46-47 use of resistant plants, 47-49 use of synthetic chemicals, 47 See also Implementation of EBPM Economic feasibility of EBPM, 49-56 Ecosystem functioning cover crop planning and, 45 feedback, 43 gene transfers between microorganisms, 105-108 integration of EBPM, 43-46 landscape ecology, 74-75 managed systems and, 72-76, 86-87 microbial communities, 72, 73, 84-85, 103 potential risks of EBPM, 100 predator-prey population dynamics, 72-76, 102-103 research needs, 5, 6-7 stability, 72 Education and training for EBPM implementation, 7-8 introducing new technologies/practices, 60-62 pest-management consultants, 62 role of the university, 62-63 Environmental Protection Agency, 93, 96, 98, 109 creation of, 38-39 recommendations for, 10, 114 regulation of biological-control organisms, 110, 112, 113 regulatory suspension of chemical pesticides, 38-39 Ethylene dibromide, 23, 33 Eurasian water milfoil, 13 Exotic species, 32 as biological-control organisms, 101

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century federal regulations for managing, 112-113 weeds, 35 Extension system, 7-8, 60-61, 93 F Farming practice accessibility of research, 85 chemical runoff, 39-40 cultural techniques, historical development of, 17-21 early biological management strategies, 12-17 groundwater contamination, 40 grower cooperatives, 63-64, 65 information flow, 58-59 operational models, 60 pest management knowledge needs, 59-60 risk behavior, 54-55 whole-farm system, 44 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 37, 38, 112-113 Federal Plant Pest Act, 112-113 Fire blight, 57 Food and Drug Administration, 112 Food contamination by biological-control organisms, 98-99 pesticide tolerances, 26 Forest management, 17 Frost damage, 57, 73 Fungicides, biological, for aquatic weed management, 37 Fungicides, chemical disease problems created by, 29 historical development, 23 limitations of, 32-34 pest resistance to, 28 Fusarium wilt, 17, 32 G Gene transfer in nature, 105-108 Genetic engineering to affect host selection/specificity, 81 for appetite suppression in pests, 35 of arthropod predators, 79-81 commercial development, 23 concerns about, 74 durability of resistance genes, 87-88 expression of coat protein genes, 22-23 hybrid plant breeding, 21 for plant resistance, 49, 82 potential human health risks, 99-100 risk assessment in, 97 toxin-encoding, risks of, 103 transgenic plant breeding, 21-22 Genetic uniformity, 21 Geographic information systems, 7, 75 Grass carp, 36 Grazing land, 35 Green manure, 20, 73 Groundwater contamination, 40 Grower cooperatives, 63-64, 65 H Herbicides, biological for aquatic weed management, 36-37 obstacles to development, 37 for weed management, 104 Herbicides, chemical for aquatic weed control, 36 historical development, 23, 24 plant resistance to, 28 runoff problems, 39-40 Historical developments arthropod management, biological strategies for, 12-13 boll weevil control strategies, 30-31 chemical pesticides, 23-25, 69 cultural practices for biological control, 17-21 disease management, biological strategies for, 17 genetically engineered plants, 22-23 origins of weeds, 106 plant breeding, 21 public concerns about chemical pesticides, 37-40 weed management, biological strategies for, 13 Human health acute effects of pesticide exposure, 40

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century chronic effects of pesticide exposure, 40-41 genetic engineering, potential risks in, 99-100 potential effects of biological-control products, 98-100 potential effects of resistant cultivars, 99 risk assessment of biological controls, 97, 111-112 scale of use of biological-control organisms and, 110 use of chemical pesticides and, 26, 37-40 Hybridization, 21 gene transfer between crops and weeds, 105-108 weed-eating fish, 36 Hydrilla, 13, 36 I Implementation of EBPM certification, 64 collective action for, 63 corporate-level, 66-67 demonstration projects, 60-61 economic considerations, 49-56 grower cooperatives in, 63-64, 65 impact of new technologies, 89, 108-109 information transfer, 7-8, 56-63 initial targets, 56 ongoing monitoring activities, 64-68 oversight activities, 8-10 planning for, 41 requirements for success, 10 research funding for, 94-95 research needs, 7, 69-71, 84-86, 88 risk aversion and, 54-56 small-market support for, 64, 97-98 socioeconomic issues, 89-91 supply of resources for, 85-86 Indole acetic acid, 23 Information management for cost-benefit analysis, 90-91 EBPM guidelines, 114-115 for implementation of EBPM, 7-8, 58-63 knowledge base for risk assessment, 108-109 participants in, 58-59, 63 patterns of information flow, 58-60 private sector role, 61-62 Insecticides, chemical historical development, 24 regulatory suspension, 38 selectivity, 48 Integrated pest management (IPM) corporate application, 66-67 EBPM and, 3, 10, 86, 94 implementation, 25 information flow, 56-58 interdisciplinary relations in, 92 objectives, 3 theoretical basis, 25 Intercropping, 20 IPM. See Integrated pest management IR-4 Program, 98 J Japanese beetle, 29 Johnsongrass, 106 K Klamath weed, 13 L Laboratory testing, 102, 103 Landscape ecology, 74-75 Leadership issues, 93-94 Livestock management, 35 M Malathion, 28, 30-31 Manure, 18-19 Methyl bromide, 23, 35 Monitoring pest behavior to evaluate economic feasibility of EBPM, 52-53

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century grower-friendly systems, 85 interactions among organisms, 76-82 landscape studies, 74-75 pathogen host range, 101-102 for pest management strategies, 77 population dynamics, 73-74, 75-76, 102-103 research needs, 6-7 signaling mechanisms, 77-78 for signs of resistance, 64-68 Monoculture planting, 22 N National Environmental Protection Act, 113 National Institutes of Health, 93 National Science Foundation, 93 O Operational models farm practice, 60 pathogen in microcosm, 102 P Parathion, 29 Paris green, 12 Pesticides, biological historical use of, 12-13 risk assessment, 97 Pesticides, chemical chronic exposure, 40-41 in cotton production, 30-31 in EBPM, 47 groundwater contamination, 40 historical development, 11, 23-25, 69 human health concerns, 37-41 in IPM, 25 limitations of, 29-37 problems associated with, 1, 11-12, 26-29, 100 regulatory suspension, 38-39 research and development trends, 28-29 risk assessment, 97 for row crop application, 35 selectivity, 48 usage trends, 24-25 Pheromones, 78 Phlebia gigantea, 17 Phyllosphere, 72-73 Plant breeding, 21-23 implementation of EBPM, 54 for plant resistance, 49 for viral resistance, 34-35 Population dynamics, 73-74, 75-76, 102-103 Potatoes, 24 Primicarb, 48 Professional societies, 93 Profitability cost of exotic pest invasions, 32 cost of pesticide resistance, 27-28 cost of plant virus damage, 34 cost of soil-borne diseases, 32, 33 EBPM objectives, 3, 4, 42, 43 economic feasibility of EBPM, 49-52, 90 market factors, 53-54 pest-control factors, 52-53 risk factors, 54-56 Propham, 23 Public intervention/oversight aquatic weed control, 36 coordination of government groups, 93-94, 113-114 current limitations, 112-114 development of new biological products, 64 EBPM, 8-10 guidelines for, 10, 114-115 human health concerns, 37-41, 98-100 for information transfer, 7-8, 62 introduction of new products, 108-109 knowledge base for, 9, 108-109 microbial herbicides, 37 need for, 8, 96 opportunities for improving, 113-115 pesticide tolerances in foodstuffs, 26 priority areas, 109-111 private economic interest and, 55 regulatory obstacles to pesticide development, 48

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century regulatory suspension of chemical pesticides, 38-39 risk assessment, 8-9, 96-97 Pyrethroids, 24 Pyrethrum, 47 R Rangelands, 35 Remote sensing technology, 75 Research accessibility to grower, 85 demonstration projects, 60-61 for EBPM implementation, 7, 69-71, 88 for EBPM success, 4-8 on ecology of managed systems, 72-76 on ecosystem interactions, 5, 91 federal efforts, 93-94 funding patterns, 92 health risks for researchers, 98 on impact of new technologies, 89 infrastructure for, 94 institutional approaches for cooperation, 91 interactions among organisms, 76-82 methodological enhancements, 6-7, 84-86 microbial communities, 84-85, 95, 103 microcosm studies, 102 multidisciplinary, 6, 91-94 natural defense systems, 78-79 natural resource inventory and maintenance, 82-83 new chemical pesticides, 28-29, 35 operational models for growers, 60 organic pesticides, 4 plant resistance, 49 predictive models for cropping systems, 86-87 priority areas, 6, 71 recommendations, 4 resources for, 94-95 on risk attitudes, 91 on socioeconomic issues, 89-91 taxonomic, 83-84 Resistance in pests to chemical pesticides, 1 cost of, 27-28 cotton boll weevil experience, 30-31 monitoring for, 64-68 as objection to broad-spectrum pesticides, 26-28 planning for, 28 research needs, 75 to viruses, 34-35 Resistant cultivars durability of, 87-88 in EBPM, 4, 47-49 expression of resistance, 104-105 genetic engineering for, 22-23 herbicide-resistant biotypes, 28 mechanisms, 82 plant breeding for, 21 potential harmful effects, 99, 103-105 regulatory environment, 114 soybean cyst nematode, 33 Rhizosphere, 72-73 Rice, 24, 106 Risk assessment activities in, 111-112 criteria, 96-97 current federal efforts, 112-114 in EBPM implementation, 8-9 economic considerations, 54-56 environmental effects, 100 for genetic science, 97 human health considerations, 98-100 individual attitudes, 91 knowledge base for, 9, 108-109 pathogen host-range, 101-102 pathogenic potential of biological-control organisms, 105-108 persistence of control organisms, 110-111 priority areas, 109-111 public role in, 96 in research and production environments, 98 resistant cultivars, potential harmful effects of, 99, 103-105 risk management and, 111-112 scale of use issues, 110 standards for, 114-115

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century Rotenone, 47 Rust diseases, 47-48 S Safety, as EBPM objective, 3-4, 42 Silent Spring, 37-38 Soil studies cover crop effects, 45 microbial communities, 72 pest population dynamics, 72-73 soil-borne diseases, 32-34, 81 Sorghum, 106 Soybeans, 24, 33 T Take-all disease, 22 Taxonomic research, 83-84 Technology development, regulatory review, 9 Tetraethylpyrophosphate, 23 Tobacco, 12 Tobacco mosaic virus, 22 Toxaphene, 23 Toxic Substances Control Act, 113 Transgenic animals/plants, 21-22 U Uncertainty, 54-55 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 93, 94, 109, 112 recommendations for, 10, 114 U.S. Department of Energy, 93 U.S. Department of the Interior, 93 V Viruses, plant, 34-35 as biological-control products, 79 W Water hyacinth, 13, 36 Weed management aquatic weeds, 13, 36-37 bioherbicide, 104 biological-control strategies, 51 cultural practices for, 20 early biological strategies, 13 herbicide-resistant biotypes, 28 landscape ecology for, 74-75 persistence of control organisms, 111 in rangelands, 35 sources of weeds, 106 use of disease pathogens for, 79 weed composition shifting and, 19 Wheat, 22, 25, 32 White amur, 36 Whole-farming systems EBPM in, 44 pest management in, 1-2 Z Zineb, 23

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century Recent Publications of the Board on Agriculture Policy and Resources Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: A Profile (1995), 146 pp, ISBN 0-309-05295-5 Investing in the National Research Initiative: An Update of the Competitive Grants Program in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1994), 66 pp, ISBN 0-309-05235-1 Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands (1994), 180 pp., ISBN 0-309-04879-6 Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture (1993), 516 pp., ISBN 0-309-04933-4 Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies (1993), 450 pp., ISBN 0-309-04430-8 Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993), 408 pp., ISBN 0-309-04875-3 Managing Global Genetic Resources: Livestock (1993), 294 pp., ISBN 0-309-04394-8 Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics (1993), 720 pp., ISBN 0-309-04749-8 Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992), 296 pp., ISBN 0-309-04682-3 Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992), 320 pp., ISBN 0-309-04528-2 Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991), 244 pp., ISBN 0-309-04034-5 Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 198 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991), 448 pp., ISBN 0-309-04578-9 Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991), 164 pp., ISBN 0-309-04540-1 Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9 Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03985-1 Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3 Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk) Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5 Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3 Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9; Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5 New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2 Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5 Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Rev. Ed. (1995), 176 pp., ISBN 0-309-05126-6 Metabolic Modifiers: Effects on the Nutrient Requirements of Food-Producing Animals (1994), 81 pp., ISBN 04997-0 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Ninth Revised Edition (1994), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04892-3 Nutrient Requirements of Fish (1993), 108 pp., ISBN 0-309-04891-5 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4 Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7 Further information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, 202-334-3313 (information only); 800-624-6242 (orders only); 202-334-2451 (fax).