definition, 46

early farm practices, 12-17

EBPM principles, 46-47

ecosystem interaction, 43-44, 76-82

environmental persistence, 110-111

experimental demonstrations, 18-19

in IPM, 25-26

microbial, 84-85, 103

molecular mechanisms, 76

natural reservoirs, 82-83

nontarget effects, 74, 100-105

objectives, 46

pathogenic potential, 105-108

regulatory environment, 112-114

research needs, 5, 76-82

risk assessment, 8-9, 97, 100, 105, 108-109

scale of use, 110

self-perpetuation of, 110-111

for soybean cyst nematode, 33

specificity, 81

success rate, 70

supply system, 55, 85-86

use of disease pathogens as, 79

Biological-control products

definition, 47

potential risks, 98-100

predator-prey population dynamics, 102-103

small-market support, 64, 97-98

specificity, 47, 71

Black scale, 65

Boll weevil, 30-31

Botrytis rot of cyclamen, 29

Broad-spectrum pesticides, 1, 26

naturally occurring, 47

obstacles to continued use, 26-40

use in cotton farming, 30-31

Brown soft scale, 29

C

California red scale, 18, 50, 65

Cancer, 40-41

Certification, 64

Chemical signaling, 77-78

Chestnut blight, 17, 80

Chlordane, 23, 38

Citrus farming

biological pest control, 50-51

early biological control mechanisms, 12, 13

pest-management cooperatives, 63, 65

pesticide-associated problems, 29

pesticide use, 24

Citrus red mite, 18, 29

Citrus rust mite, 50

Collego®, 104, 106

Commercial development

biological management of diseases, 17

genetically engineered plants, 23

growth of chemical pesticide industry, 23-25

health risks for workers, 98

pesticide industry trends, 28-29

regulatory obstacles, 48, 112-115

small-market products, 64, 97-98

Communication among organisms, 77-78

Consultants, 7-8, 10, 62

Corn

growth of pesticide use, 24

hybridization, 21

leaf blight, 21

Cost-benefit analysis

data base for, 90-91

feasibility of EBPM, 49-56

measuring direct and indirect effects in, 89-90

role of, 89

Cotton, 24

arthropod management strategies, 30-31

pesticide use trends, 24

Cottony cushion scale, 13, 18, 29, 51

Cover crops, 20, 45

Crop rotation, 18-19, 20

for soybean cyst nematode management, 33

Cropping patterns

for managing plant viruses, 34

historical applications for biological control, 17-21

landscape ecology, 74-75

predictive models for, 86-87

row crop pests, 35



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement