personnel, or private business or other public or private agencies or organizations.
Demonstration research needs to be large in scale to reflect actual farming practices and to reduce outside influences (such as movement of arthropod pests and their natural enemies or plant disease spores). Whole-farm demonstrations are ideal, and these should be replicated throughout the area. Further, because local environment, pest pressures, and cropping practices vary from region to region, such demonstrations must be conducted in locations representing the entire range of the crop.
The agricultural information and education infrastructure has changed and adapted to new circumstances since the inception of the land grant colleges in 1862 (Goe and Kenney, 1988). The importance of the public sector in agricultural information was reinforced by the passage of the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, which created the Cooperative Extension Service, a unique cooperation of national, state, and local agencies for the primary purpose of providing practical information to growers. The current infrastructure will have to be retooled and strengthened to meet the knowledge needs for ecologically based pest management.
Historically, extension agents focused predominantly on recommendations for using pesticides, because of the large quantity of information available, the generally high degree of efficacy of the products, the ease of use of pesticides, rapid changes in pesticide use technology, and changes in pesticide use regulations. However, extension specialists recognize a need to increase their educational emphases in EBPM. A 1992 survey of 178 extension entomologists from throughout the United States, for example, found that 18 percent of their educational time was devoted specifically to programs relating to conventional biological control; the respondents indicated, however, that they expected the time would increase to 38 percent within 10 years (Mahr, 1995). This increase will be driven by research developments in biological control as well as by demand from the agricultural community for pesticide alternatives (Mahr, 1991).
Private businesses that rely on pest-management information can be placed in two categories: those with products to sell (such as agrichemical companies, biotechnology companies, and suppliers of biological-control agents), and those that provide a service (such as independent crop consultants). Both groups use information generated in-house as well from external private and public sources.
Product-oriented companies use scientific information (to further their own research on new products), regulatory and policy information, and marketing trends. Some of this information is also passed along to their customers, in the form of advertising, use recommendations, or product profiles. For example, the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers, which is the association of companies which market predatory and parasitic insects for biological control, has developed a series of ''Product Profiles" on the various types of commercially available natural enemies. Profiles provide information on the general biology of