divisions at the research and administration levels or the problems that plagued IPM research will be repeated.

Professional Societies

The pest science professional societies, such as the Entomological Society of America, American Phytopathological Society, Society of Nematologists, and the Weed Science Society of America, each have members who advocate increased emphasis on biological controls for management of pests; but because these societies have diverse interests, they are not likely to provide the necessary leadership for EBPM. A strong, unified group that encourages multidisciplinary research and provides a forum for discussions of common themes related to EBPM could help to assure future interdisciplinary approaches to biological control. Forums for research and extension interactions between the pest science disciplines can also reverse the evolution toward different nomenclatures describing common phenomena. It is time for a professional forum to enhance communication among all scientists involved in aspects of EBPM.

Coordination of Federal Departments and Agencies

Ecologically based pest management is a topic of interest to a number of federal departments and agencies, and strong federal support is needed if progress is to be made in its implementation. The need for a coalition of credible advocates for EBPM from the research and extension communities is essential; strong leadership at the federal level can help to ensure that efforts in research and extension at the state and local levels are supported and coordinated.

A successful model for coordinating problem-solving research is the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH works to provide a national research agenda and funding to support both basic and applied research toward solving specific problems. NIH also acts to focus public attention on the problems being addressed. This type of model has been recommended in the past for agricultural research.

Attempts have been made within USDA to coordinate biological-control activities; this type of effort needs to be encouraged and expanded to include other federal departments and agencies with common interests. Identifying a single group within USDA empowered to speak for the various interests within the department and coordinate their activities would facilitate research and extension efforts in EBPM; this group could also coordinate USDA's activities with those of other government departments and agencies with interests in this area, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Agency for International Development, and the Department of the Interior.

One issue that will necessitate federal leadership is that of the overlapping

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