Ecologically Based Pest Management

New Solutions for a New Century

Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996



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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century Ecologically Based Pest Management New Solutions for a New Century Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes BOARD ON AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report has been prepared with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and Agricultural Research Service, and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Policy under agreement number 59-32U4-0-28. Dissemination was supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ecologically based pest management : new solutions for a new century / Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control Through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 0-309-05330-7 (alk. paper) 1. Agricultural pests—Integrated control. 2. Agricultural pests—Integrated control—Environmental aspects. 3. Agricultural ecology. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control Through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes. SB950.E365 1996 632’.96—dc20 96-4946 CIP © 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Printed in the United States of America

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century COMMITTEE ON PEST AND PATHOGEN CONTROL THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS AND ENHANCED NATURAL CYCLES AND PROCESSES RALPH W. F. HARDY, Chair, The Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, New York ROGER N. BEACHY, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California HAROLD BROWNING, University of Florida JERRY D. CAULDER, Mycogen Corporation, San Diego, California RAGHAVAN CHARUDATTAN, University of Florida PETER FAULKNER, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada FRED L. GOULD, North Carolina State University MAUREEN KUWANO HINKLE, National Audubon Society, Washington, D.C. BRUCE A. JAFFEE, University of California, Davis MARY K. KNUDSON, University of Michigan W. JOE LEWIS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Tifton, Georgia JOYCE E. LOPER, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Corvallis, Oregon DANIEL L. MAHR, University of Wisconsin, Madison NEAL K. VAN ALFEN, Texas A&M University Consultant ALLAN EAGLESHAM, Ithaca, New York Staff MARY JANE LETAW, Project Officer CRAIG COX, Project Officer* JANET OVERTON, Editor VIOLA HOREK, Project Assistant CRISTELLYN BANKS, Senior Secretary and Project Assistant† *    Through April 1994. †   Through June 1994.

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century BOARD ON AGRICULTURE DALE E. BAUMAN, Chair, Cornell University PHILIP H. ABELSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. JOHN M. ANTLE, Montana State University MAY R. BERENBAUM, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign LEONARD S. BULL, North Carolina State University WILLIAM B. DELAUDER, Delaware State University SUSAN K. HARLANDER, The Pillsbury Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota RICHARD R. HARWOOD, Michigan State University T. KENT KIRK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin JAMES R. MOSELEY, Jim Moseley Farms, Inc., Clarks Hill, Indiana, and Purdue University NORMAN R. SCOTT, Cornell University GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR., Colorado State University CHRISTOPHER R. SOMERVILLE, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California JOHN R. WELSER, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan Staff SUSAN E. OFFUTT, Executive Director CARLA CARLSON, Assistant Executive Director

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century Preface At the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and with support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture convened the 14-member Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Natural Cycles and Processes to assess status of the knowledge in areas of pesticide application, host resistance, and biological-control practices and to chart future direction. Specifically, the committee was charged to address the following: Why do we need new arthropod, weed, and pathogen control methods in crop and forest production systems? What can we realistically expect from investment in new technologies? How do we develop effective and profitable pest control systems that rely primarily on ecological processes of control? How should we oversee and commercialize biological control organisms and products? Given our charge and the record of history of the application of pesticides, breeding for disease resistance, and integrating biological control practices into production agriculture, my colleagues on the committee and I deliver this report with one key message: In both science and application, researchers, providers of inputs, and growers must progress from a product based approach to an ecologically based pest management system identified as EBPM. Management is the key word. In fact, the word control, as in biological control, is misleading. Pests in most cases cannot be controlled; pests must be managed with the objectives of a safe, profitable, and durable outcome.

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century With a better understanding of ecology, the inherent strengths of the managed ecosystem can be used with more modest inputs than in the past. Essentially, the change to EBPM as proposed here will require a substantial change from the primary practice of product input to the primary mind set of information and management. Ultimately, EBPM will help to address ecosystem health not by administering products alone to treat symptoms, but by integrating components that maximize use of natural processes with minimum development of resistance. EBPM will require regulatory oversight that matches the level of risk of biological inputs added to the managed ecosystem. For example, synthetic chemicals are new to the biosphere—they have no base of performance in the environment or in relation to human health. However, biologically based organisms, products, and resistant cultivars are inherently different, for the most part, from synthetics. Biological processes, having existed in nature over time, provide a base of experience that is a major resource to evaluate the safe application and establish appropriate oversight of EBPM. Biologically based products are not inherently different from synthetics in their vulnerability to development of resistance, although history suggests that such will be less frequent. Users will need to monitor managed ecosystems for early identification of pest resistance. In this report we place major emphasis on the research information needs and on appropriate regulatory oversight. The committee also urges an interactive, cooperative approach to development of EBPM. Given the other individuals and organizations addressing issues relating to the adoption of new pest management approaches, we have only modestly considered adoption in our report. In this deliberative report the Executive Summary presents the findings and key recommendations. Chapter 1 describes the history of pest management and the limitations of current practices. Chapter 2 details the committee's new approach to pest management, ecologically based pest management. Chapter 3 identifies priority research areas and discusses important institutional changes to effectively carry out that research. Chapter 4 assesses regulatory oversight and aspects of risk assessment and management. The contents of this report offer a new paradigm, the concept of EBPM. We are optimistic that the development and application of the principles of EBPM will contribute to a future with high-quality food, fiber, and forest production and sound management of our natural resources for safety, profitability, and durability. RALPH W. F. HARDY, Chair Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Natural Cycles and Processes

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century THE COMMITTEE ACKNOWLEDGES with deep appreciation all those who contributed their expertise to this project. The committee is especially grateful for the contributions of Joseph Panetta of Mycogen Corporation. Mr. Panetta provided useful ideas and insights based on his experience with registration and commercialization of biological control products.

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century Contents     PREFACE   vii     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1     Cultural and Biological Approaches to Pest Management   2     Safety, Profitability, and Durability   3     Developing a Knowledge Base   4     Understanding the Interactive Processes of Ecosystems   5     The Need for Multidisciplinary Ecosystem Research   6     New Research Methods   6     Implementation Research   7     Information Inputs   7     Public Oversight of Ecologically Based Pest Management   8     Appropriate Risks   8     Experience and Experimentation   9     The Need for Guidelines   10     A New Era   10 1   LESSONS FROM THE PAST PROVIDE DIRECTION FOR THE FUTURE   11     A Brief History of Pest Management Using Naturally Occurring Substances   12     Early Biological Management of Arthropods   12     Early Biological Management of Weeds   13     Early Biological Management of Diseases   17     A Brief History of Cultural Practices   17     Plant Breeding   21

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century     Synthetic Organic Pesticides   23     Insecticides   24     Herbicides   24     Declining Use   24     Integrated Pest Management   25     Obstacles to Continued Use of Broad-Spectrum Pesticides   26     Problems and Limitations of Pesticides   26     Problems that Defy Conventional Chemical Solutions   29     Human and Environmental Health Concerns   37     Time to Reassess and Plan   41 2   DEFINING AND IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICALLY BASED PEST MANAGEMENT   42     Goals of Ecologically Based Pest Management   42     Supplements to Natural Processes   44     Biological-Control Organisms   46     Biological-Control Products   47     Synthetic Chemicals   47     Resistant Plants   47     Economic Feasibility of Ecologically Based Pest Management   49     Economic Feasibility of Pest Management   49     Economic Feasibility and Risk   54     The Role of Information in Pest Management   56     Role of Collective Action in Pest Management   63     Grower Cooperatives   63     Small-Market Support   64     Certification   64     Monitoring Pests   64 3   ACCELERATING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT   69     Foundations of a Knowledge Base   70     Priority Research Areas   71     Research on the Ecology of Managed Ecosystems   72     Research on Behavioral, Physiological, and Molecular Mechanisms to Effect EBPM   76     Research to Identify and Conserve Natural Resources Needed for EBPM   82     Development of Better Research and Diagnostic Techniques   84     Development of Ecologically Based Crop Protection Strategies   86     Research on Implementation and Evaluation of EBPM   88     Research to Improve Understanding of the Socioeconomic Issues Affecting Adoption   89     Development of New Institutional Approaches to Encourage the Necessary Interdisciplinary Cooperation   91     Infrastructure for Research   94

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century 4   PUBLIC OVERSIGHT OF ECOLOGICALLY BASED PEST MANAGEMENT   95     Human Health Risks   98     Environmental Risks   100     Nontarget Effects   100     Exacerbation of Plant Pests   105     Risk Assessment and Management   108     Drawing on Experience and Experimentation   108     Setting Priorities   109     Managing Risk   111     Gaps and Inconsistencies in Current Oversight   112     Options for Improvement   114     REFERENCES   117     ABOUT THE AUTHORS   133     INDEX   137

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