minimal inhibitory concentrations. These data should provide a growing base from which to develop models and predict resistance emergence.

  • The committee recommends that basic research, which explores and discovers new or novel antibiotics and mechanisms of action of antibiotics, should receive increased funding. In particular, funding is needed to develop more rapid and wide-screen diagnostic tests to increase the capability of more accurately tracking emerging trends in antibiotic resistance and zoonotic disease and to transfer this information to the larger database. Funding should come from federal and private sources.

  • The committee recommends that the drug development industry continue to seek new approaches to identify and capitalize on novel microbial–biochemical processes for antibiotic drug development to control the spread of infection. Because resistance development to one antibiotic poses a significant threat for resistance to emerge against others in the same parent class (cross-resistance), the discovery and development of new classes of antibiotics is essential to ensure infection control in the future.

  • The committee recommends that increased education about issues, practices, and concepts of antibiotics and their uses should be made available in school, industry, home, and professional venues. The misuse of antibiotics through lack of awareness can no longer be tolerated.

  • The committee recommends the characterization of the relative risk to consumers between chronically ill or carrier food animals and antibiotic resistance in microbes residing in food animals. Increased educational efforts in this regard and development of strategies for optimizing the balance between the two also are needed.

  • The committee recommends that, to aid in the accountability process, identification of the source of drug resistance would be enhanced substantially by using individual identification systems, such as microchips, in all food animals.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement