veterinarian (i.e., a veterinarian who has direct or delegated authority) should give research personnel advice that ensures that humane needs are met and are compatible with scientific requirements. The AWRs and PHS Policy require that the attending veterinarian have the authority to. oversee the adequacy of other aspects of animal care and use. These can include animal husbandry and nutrition, sanitation practices, zoonosis control, and hazard containment.
AWRs and PHS Policy require institutions to ensure that people caring for or using animals are qualified to do so. The number and qualifications of personnel required to conduct and support an animal care and use program depend on several factors, including the type and size of institution, the administrative structure for providing adequate animal care, the characteristics of the physical plant, the number and species of animals maintained, and the nature of the research, testing, and educational activities.
Personnel caring for animals should be appropriately trained (see Appendix A, ''Technical and Professional Education"), and the institution should provide for formal or on-the-job training to facilitate effective implementation of the program and humane care and use of animals. According to the programmatic scope, personnel will be required with expertise in other disciplines, such as animal husbandry, administration, laboratory animal medicine and pathology, occupational health and safety, behavioral management, genetic management, and various other aspects of research support.
There are a number of options for the training of technicians. Many states have colleges with accredited programs in veterinary technology (AVMA 1995); most are 2-year programs that result in associate of science degrees, and some are 4-year programs that result in bachelor of science degrees. Nondegree training, with certification programs for laboratory animal technicians and technologists, can be obtained from the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). There are commercially available training materials that are appropriate for self-study (Appendix B). Personnel using or caring for animals should also participate regularly in continuing-education activities relevant to their responsibilities. They are encouraged to be involved in local and national meetings of AALAS and other relevant professional organizations. On-the-job training should be part of every technician's job and should be supplemented with institution-sponsored discussion and training programs and with reference materials applicable to their jobs and the species with which they work (Kreger 1995). Coordinators of institutional training programs can seek assistance from the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) and ILAR (NRC 1991). The Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals by the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC 1993) and guidelines of some other countries are valuable additions to the libraries of laboratory animal scientists (Appendix B).