for farm animals are provided. The Guide does not specifically address farm animals used in agricultural research or teaching, wildlife and aquatic animals studied in natural settings, or invertebrate animals used in research; however, many of the general principles in this Guide apply to these species and situations.


This Guide endorses the responsibilities of investigators as stated in the U.S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training (IRAC 1985; see Appendix D). Interpretation and application of those principles and this Guide require professional knowledge. In summary, the principles encourage

  • Design and performance of procedures on the basis of relevance to human or animal health, advancement of knowledge, or the good of society.

  • Use of appropriate species, quality, and number of animals.

  • Avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, and pain in concert with sound science.

  • Use of appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia.

  • Establishment of experimental end points.

  • Provision of appropriate animal husbandry directed and performed by qualified persons.

  • Conduct of experimentation on living animals only by or under the close supervision of qualified and experienced persons.

In general, the principles stipulate responsibilities of investigators, whose activities regarding use of animals are subject to oversight by an institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC).

Animal facilities and programs should be operated in accord with this Guide, the Animal Welfare Regulations, or AWRs (CFR 1985); the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, or PHS Policy (PHS 1996); and other applicable federal (Appendixes C and D) state, and local laws, regulations, and policies.1 Supplemental information on breeding, care, management, and use of selected laboratory animal species is available in other publications prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) and other organizations (Appendix A). References in this Guide provide the


Users are reminded that the Guide is written for a diverse group of national and international institutions and organizations. many of which are covered by neither the AWRs nor the PHS Policy. On a few matters, the Guide differs from the AWRs and the PHS Policy: users regulated by the AWRs or the PHS Policy must comply with them.

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