animal holding rooms should provide for adequate vision and for neuroendocrine regulation of diurnal and circadian cycles (Brainard 1989).

Photoperiod is a critical regulator of reproductive behavior in many species of animals (Brainard and others 1986; Cherry 1987) and can also alter body weight gain and feed intake (Tucker and others 1984). Inadvertent light exposure during the dark cycle should be minimized or avoided. Because some species will not eat in low light or darkness, such illumination schedules should be limited to a duration that will not compromise the well-being of the animals. A time-controlled lighting system should be used to ensure a regular diurnal cycle, and timer performance should be checked periodically to ensure proper cycling.

The most commonly used laboratory animals are nocturnal. Because the albino rat is more susceptible to phototoxic retinopathy than other species, it has been used as a basis for establishing room illumination levels (Lanum 1979). Data for room light intensities for other animals, based on scientific studies, are not available. Light levels of about 325 lux (30 ft-candles) about 1.0 m (3.3 ft) above the floor appear to be sufficient for animal care and do not cause clinical signs of phototoxic retinopathy in albino rats (Belihorn 1980), and levels up to 400 lux (37 ft-candles) as measured in an empty room 1 m from the floor have been found to be satisfactory for rodents if management practices are used to prevent retinal damage in albinos (Clough 1982). However, the light experience of an individual animal can affect its sensitivity to phototoxicity; light of 130-270 lux above the light intensity under which it was raised has been reported to be near the threshold of retinal damage in some individual albino rats according to histologic, morphometric, and electrophysiologic evidence (Semple-Rowland and Dawson 1987). Some guidelines recommend a light intensity as low as 40 lux at the position of the animal in midcage (NASA 1988). Young albino and pigmented mice prefer much-lower illumination than adults (Wax 1977), although potential retinal damage associated with housing these rodents at higher light levels is mostly reversible. Thus, for animals that have been shown to be susceptible to phototoxic retinopathy, light at the cage level should be between 130 and 325 lux.

Management practices, such as rotating cage position relative to the light source (Greenman and others 1982) or providing animals with ways to modify their own light exposure by behavioral means (e.g., via tunneling or hiding in a structure), can be used to reduce inappropriate light stimulation of animals. Provision of variable-intensity light controls might be considered as a means of ensuring that light intensities are consistent with the needs of animals and personnel working in animal rooms and with energy conservation. Such controls should have some form of vernier scale and a lockable setting and should not be used merely to turn room lighting on and off. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) handbook (Kaufman 1984, 1987) can assist in decisions concerning lighting uniformity, color-rendering index, shielding, glare control, reflection, lifetime, heat generation, and ballast selection.

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