All animals must be acquired lawfully, and the receiving institution should make reasonable attempts to ensure that all transactions involving animal procurement are conducted in a lawful manner. If dogs and cats are obtained from USDA Class B dealers or pounds, the animals should be inspected to see whether they can be identified, as through the presence of tattoos or subcutaneous transponders. Such identification might indicate that an animal was a pet, and ownership should be verified. Attention should be given to the population status of the taxon under consideration; the threatened or endangered status of species is provided and updated annually by the Fish and Wildlife Service (DOI 50 CFR 17). The use of purpose-bred research animals testing objectives. might be desirable if it is consistent with research, teaching, and

Potential vendors should be evaluated for the quality of animals supplied by them. As a rule, vendors of purpose-bred animals (e.g., USDA Class A dealers) regularly provide information that describes the genetic and pathogen status of their colonies or individual animals. This information is useful for deciding on acceptance or rejection of animals, and similar data should be obtained on animals received by interinstitutional or intrainstitutional transfer (such as transgenic mice).

All transportation of animals, including intrainstitutional transportation, should be planned to minimize transit time and the risk of zoonoses, protect against environmental extremes, avoid overcrowding, provide food and water when indicated, and protect against physical trauma. Some transportation-related stress is inevitable, but it can be minimized by attention to those factors. Each shipment of animals should be inspected for compliance with procurement specifications and signs of clinical disease and should be quarantined and stabilized according to procedures appropriate for the species and the circumstances. Coordination of ordering and receiving with animal care personnel is important to ensure that animals are received properly and that appropriate facilities are available for housing.

Several documents provide details on transportation, including the AWRs and the International Air Transport Association Live Animal Regulations (IATA 1995). In addition, import of primates is regulated by the Public Health Service (CFR Title 42) with specific guidelines for tuberculin testing (CDC 1993). There are special requirements for importing and transporting African green, cynomolgus, and rhesus monkeys (FR 1990; CDC 1991).


Disease prevention is an essential component of comprehensive veterinary medical care. Effective preventive-medicine programs enhance the research value of animals by maintaining healthy animals and minimizing nonprotocol sources

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