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Limnology Programs in U.S. Institutes of Higher Education: A Survey



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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology A Limnology Programs in U.S. Institutes of Higher Education: A Survey

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology TABLE A-1 Survey of Limnology Programs at U.S. Institutes of Higher Education: Summary Survey Question   Number of Schools Number of faculty members in limnology and related disciplines 0 3   1 9   2 5   3 6   4 7   5–10 28   11–20 5   >20 3 Students obtaining degrees in limnology-related fields each year 0 3   1–5 26   6–10 12   11–15 6   16–20 6   >20 6 Level of introductory limnology course Freshman/sophomore 0   Junior/senior/graduate 59   Graduate only 4 Student interest in limnology Increasing 38   Holding steady 17   Decreasing 2 Schools with access to research or field stations   40 Schools responding to survey   69   SOURCE: Written surveys sent to schools belonging to the Universities Council on Water Resources or housing a Water Resources Research Institute. See Table A-3 for detailed responses.

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology TABLE A-2 Departments Housing Faculty Working in Limnology and Related Disciplines Department Number of Schools with Limnology-Related Faculty Housed in This Type of Department Agriculture/soil science 6 Biology 42 Botany 12 Chemistry 3 Civil/environmental engineering 32 Ecology 6 Entomology 9 Environmental science/studies 10 Fisheries 17 Forestry 10 Geography 3 Geology/geophysics/geoscience 18 Hydrology/hydrogeology 4 Landscape architecture 1 Life science 2 Marine science and limnology 1 Natural resources 9 Oceanography 3 Public health 2 Rangeland management 3 Urban and regional planning 1 Zoology 15 Zoology and limnology 1   SOURCE: Written surveys of schools belonging to the Universities Council on Water Resources or housing U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Research Institutes. See Table A-3 for detailed responses.

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology TABLE A-3 Limnology Programs at U.S. Institutes of Higher Education: Survey Responses University Departments Offering Degrees in Limnology-related Fields Departments Housing Faculty in Limnology-related Fields Students in Limnology-related Fields Graduating Each Year Faculty in Limnology and Related Disciplines Frequency of Introductory Limnology Course Level of Student Interest in Limnology Availability of Limnological Research Stations or Labs Alabama Biological sciences Geology Geography Civil and environmental engineering Biological sciences Geology Geography Civil and environmental engineering 10 22 Once per semester (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing One field station Arizona State Zoology Civil engineering Zoology Civil engineering na 5 Once per year (senior level) Increasing None Arkansas Biological sciences Zoology Botany Environmental science Civil engineering Biological sciences Zoology Botany Environmental science Civil engineering 5–10 3 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Holding steady None Alaska, Fairbanks Biology and wildlife Fisheries Marine science and limnology Biology and wildlife Marine science and limnology na 3 Once per year (senior level) Holding steady at high level Two ecological research stations Arizona Hydrology and water resources Wildlife and fisheries science Hydrology and water resources Wildlife and fisheries science Entomology 6–8 2 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing rapidly None

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Auburn Fisheries and allied aquacultures Zoology Fisheries and allied aquacultures Zoology 5 4 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing 250 small impoundments used for fish cultures California, Berkeley Civil and environmental engineering Integrated biology Environmental science, planning, and management Landscape architecture Civil and environmental engineering Integrated biology Landscape architecture Entomology Geology 5 10 Once per semester (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing rapidly Two field stations; other labs can be constructed on field sites California, Davis Environmental studies Ecology Environmental studies Land, air, and water resources Ecology Hydrology 10 5 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing Two field research stations California, Irvine Ecology and evolutionary biology Biological sciences None 1 Every other year (junior/senior level) na None California, Santa Barbara Biological sciences Biological sciences Geology Geography 34 5 Once per year (junior/senior level) Increasing Once field lab with many aquatic habitats Cincinnati Biological sciences Biological sciences Geology Environmental engineering 3–5 4 Every other year (junior/senior level) Increasing None

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology University Departments Offering Degrees in Limnology-related Fields Departments Housing Faculty in Limnology-related Fields Students in Limnology-related Fields Graduating Each Year Faculty in Limnology and Related Disciplines Frequency of Introductory Limnology Course Level of Student Interest in Limnology Availability of Limnological Research Stations or Labs Clemson Biological sciences Biological sciences Environmental systems engineering Aquaculture Fisheries and wildlife 3 5 Once per year (senior level) Holding steady Access to Corps of Engineers research facility Colorado Environmental, population, and organismic biology Environmental, population, and organismic biology Civil, environmental, and architectural engineering 2 2 Once per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing One field station Colorado State Biology Fishery and wildlife biology Biology Fishery and wildlife biology 3–4 3 Three courses offered in alternate years (senior/graduate level) Increasing None Connecticut Ecology and evolutionary biology Ecology and evolutionary biology Civil engineering Natural resources management and engineering 8–10 3 Two courses, offered each year (junior/senior level) Increasing Marine science field station

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Cornell Natural resources Ecology and systematics Ecology and systematics 2–3 6 Every other year (junior/senior/graduate level) Increasing One field station Drexel Bioscience and biotechnology Bioscience and biotechnology Environmental studies institute 2–4 1 (plus 3 in related fields) Once per year (senior/graduate level) Holding steady One field station Duke Botany Geology Zoology School of the environment Botany Geology Zoology School of the environment 2 5 Every other year (senior/graduate level) Increasing None East Carolina Biology Biology 20 6 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Holding steady One field station in development Georgia Forest resources Institute of ecology Botany Entomology Microbiology Forest resources Institute of ecology Botany Entomology Microbiology 10 10 Once per year (junior/senior/graduate level) Increasing Access to four field labs Hawaii None Zoology None None Every other year (senior/graduate level) Increasing One rainforest lab Idaho Fish and wildlife Life sciences Hydrogeology Entomology Civil engineering Bacteriology/biochemistry Fish and wildlife Life sciences Hydrogeology Entomology Civil engineering Bacteriology/biochemistry 5 4 Once per year (senior level) Increasing rapidly Three field stations

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology University Departments Offering Degrees in Limnology-related Fields Departments Housing Faculty in Limnology-related Fields Students in Limnology-related Fields Graduating Each Year Faculty in Limnology and Related Disciplines Frequency of Introductory Limnology Course Level of Student Interest in Limnology Availability of Limnological Research Stations or Labs Johns Hopkins Geography and environmental engineering Earth and planetary sciences Geography and environmental engineering Earth and planetary sciences 5 6 New course (graduate level) na na Kansas Biology Systematics and ecology Systematics and ecology Entomology Botany 2 8 Once per year (junior/senior/graduate level) Increasing rapidly One large field site with many aquatic systems Kansas State Biology Biology 21 (20 of these are B.S. degrees in fisheries) 2 Every other year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Holding steady One field station Kentucky Biological sciences Geological sciences Toxicology Forestry Biological sciences Forestry Geological sciences 20 na Every two to three years (senior level) na na Louisiana Biological and agricultural engineering Civil and environmental engineering Oceanography and coastal sciences Biological and agricultural engineering Civil and environmental engineering Oceanography and coastal sciences 100 6 None Increasing in all fields related to the environment Natural systems engineering lab; several agricultural experimental stations

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Maine Plant biology Geological sciences Zoology Wildlife Institute of quaternary studies Plant biology Geological sciences Zoology 0–3 5 Every other year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing One field site Maryland None None None None None na Two estuarine labs Massachusetts Biology Environmental sciences Wildlife and fisheries biology Entomology Geology Plant and soil science Civil engineering Environmental engineering Biology Environmental sciences Wildlife and fisheries biology Entomology Geology Plant and soil science Civil engineering Environmental engineering Chemistry Public health Microbiology na 1 limnologist; 16 faculty in related areas Every semester (full-year course, junior/senior/ graduate level) Decreasing None Michigan State Fisheries and wildlife Zoology Botany Resource development Fisheries and wildlife Zoology Botany Resource development 3–4 7 Once per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Holding steady Two field stations

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology TABLE A-3 Limnology Programs at U.S. Institutes of Higher Education: Survey Responses (Continued) University Departments Offering Degrees in Limnology-related Fields Departments Housing Faculty in Limnology-related Fields Students in Limnology-related Fields Graduating Each Year Faculty in Limnology and Related Disciplines Frequency of Introductory Limnology Course Level of Student Interest in Limnology Availability of Limnological Research Stations or Labs Minnesota, Twin Cities Civil engineering Ecology, evolution and behavior Fisheries and wildlife Geology and geophysics Geography Horticulture Soil, water and climate Forest resources Entomology Plant science Public health Agricultural engineering Ecology, evolution and behavior Civil engineering Geology and geophysics Entomology Horticulture Soil, water and climate Fisheries and wildlife Biology Plant science Environmental and occupational health 85 65 Three courses offered twice per year (junior/senior level) Holding steady One field station with many aquatic systems, one with experimental stream channels, and one with wetlands Mississippi State Wildlife and fisheries Wildlife and fisheries Biological engineering Biological science 6 3 Once per year (junior level) Holding steady One research and extension center Missouri Fisheries and wildlife Fisheries and wildlife Biological sciences Civil engineering 3-5 8 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing One field laboratory

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Michigan Biology Natural resources and environment Biology Natural resources and environment 15–20 graduate students 6–10 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing One biological research station and many field research preserves M.I.T. Civil and environmental engineering Civil and environmental engineering 5 1–2 Every other year (graduate level) na na Montana Biological sciences Environmental studies Wildlife biology Biological sciences Environmental studies Wildlife biology Geology 20 20 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing Three large field stations Montana State Biology Biology Environmental engineering Microbiology 10 6 Once per year (junior/senior level) Holding steady Field lab in Antarctica Nebraska Forestry, fisheries, and wildlife Biological sciences Forestry, fisheries, and wildlife Biological sciences 20–23 1 Once per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing One field station Nevada, Las Vegas Biological sciences Biological sciences Geological sciences/ hydrology 5–10 5 Once per year (junior/senior level) Holding steady None New Hampshire Biology Natural resources Biology Natural resources Botany na 3 Once per year (senior level) na na New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Geoscience Geoscience Biology Chemistry 15 (hydrology) 1 None na None

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology University Departments Offering Degrees in Limnology-related Fields Departments Housing Faculty in Limnology-related Fields Students in Limnology-related Fields Graduating Each Year Faculty in Limnology and Related Disciplines Frequency of Introductory Limnology Course Level of Student Interest in Limnology Availability of Limnological Research Stations or Labs New Mexico State Interdisciplinary Fishery and wildlife sciences Civil engineering 10 1 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Holding steady None New York, Syracuse Environmental and forest biology Forestry Chemistry 2–3 1 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing Many field stations and research sites North Carolina, Chapel Hill Environmental science and engineering Biological sciences Environmental science and engineering Biological sciences Marine science Geology Urban and regional planning 4–6 5 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Decreasing None North Carolina State Zoology Botany Forestry Fisheries and wildlife Crop science Biomathematics Ecology Eivil engineering Biological and agricultural engineering Zoology Botany Forestry Civil engineering Biological and agricultural engineering 15 6 Once per year (senior level) Increasing Two reservoirs, one farm pond

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology North Dakota State Zoology Zoology 13 2 Every other year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing Access to Northern Prairie Science Center Northern Illinois Not taught at this institution na na na na na na Ohio State Zoology Natural resources Zoology Natural resources Geology Entomology Civil engineering 20 4 Twice per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing Field labs on Lake Erie, reservoirs, wetlands Oklahoma State Zoology Zoology Botany Civil and environmental engineering 3 2–3 Every other year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Holding steady None Penn State Environmental resource management Civil/ environmental engineering Biology Forest resources na 5 Once per year (senior level) na None Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Biology Biology None 1 Once per year (graduate level) Holding steady None Purdue Forestry and natural resources Forestry and natural resources Botany and plant pathology Entomology Environmental engineering Biological science 4 1 Once per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing interest in water quality One field station; nearby river; experimental watershed

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology University Departments Offering Degrees in Limnology-related Fields Departments Housing Faculty in Limnology-related Fields Students in Limnology-related Fields Graduating Each Year Faculty in Limnology and Related Disciplines Frequency of Introductory Limnology Course Level of Student Interest in Limnology Availability of Limnological Research Stations or Labs Rutgers Biology Ecology Environmental sciences Biology Environmental sciences Natural resources 5 or fewer 4 Every other year (junior/senior level) Increasing None South Dakota State Wildlife and fisheries sciences Civil and environmental engineering Biology/ microbiology Agricultural engineering Wildlife and fisheries sciences Biology/ microbiology Civil engineering Plant science 3–4 8 Once per year (junior/senior level) Holding steady (some increase in wetland ecology) One field station South Florida Biology Civil engineering Biology Geology Civil engineering 1 5 Every third year (senior/graduate level) Increasing None Tennessee Ecology Zoology Fisheries Ecology Zoology Botany Forestry, wildlife, and fisheries Environmental engineering 3–7 8 Once per year (junior level) Holding steady None

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Texas, Arlington Biology Environmental science and engineering Biology Civil and environmental engineering 4–9 4 (biology department) Once per year or every other year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing None Texas, Austin Zoology Biological sciences Zoology Civil engineering 20 5 or fewer Once per year (junior/senior level) na None Texas A & M Oceanography Wildlife and fisheries Wildlife and fisheries Oceonography Rangeland ecology and management 30 5 Once per year (junior/senior level) Holding steady None Texas Tech Civil engineering Environmental engineering Environmental technology management Range and wildlife management Fisheries and wildlife management Civil engineering Range and wildlife management Biological sciences 10 13 Once per year (graduate level) Increasing One field station Utah State Biology Fisheries and wildlife Aquatic ecology Watershed science Civil and environmental engineering Biology Fisheries and wildlife Range science Forestry Civil and environmental engineering Soil science 13 11 Once per year (junior/senior level) Increasing One field laboratory

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology University Departments Offering Degrees in Limnology-related Fields Departments Housing Faculty in Limnology-related Fields Students in Limnology-related Fields Graduating Each Year Faculty in Limnology and Related Disciplines Frequency of Introductory Limnology Course Level of Student Interest in Limnology Availability of Limnological Research Stations or Labs Vermont Natural resources Natural resources 5 or fewer 1 Once per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) na na Virginia Military Institute None None na na na na na Virginia Tech Biology Fisheries and wildlife Biology Fisheries and wildlife Civil engineering na 15 Once per year (senior/graduate level) Increasing None Washington State Natural resources science Environmental science Environmental engineering Civil and environmental engineering Natural resources science Zoology-limnology 10–15 6 Every semester (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing Several lakes and reservoirs Wisconsin, Madison Oceanography and limnology graduate program Zoology Botany Geology Water chemistry program Environmental studies Botany Geology and geophysics Civil and environmental engineering Zoology Environmental studies 5–10 22 Once per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing One field station

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Wyoming Zoology and physiology Zoology and physiology 15 8 Once per year (junior/senior/ graduate level) Increasing One field lab; access to National Park Service research center Yale Biology Geology Forestry and environmental studies Forestry and environmental studies Biology Geology Geophysics None 0 None Increasing 11,000 acres of forest land NOTE: The notation ''na" indicates that this question was not answered on the survey.