be expressed in units of ecosystem condition. We hope the papers in this volume will foster progress toward that ideal.


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Sharpe, R. M. 1995. Another DDT connection. Nature 375:538-539.

Shen, H. W. 1996. Engineering studies based on ecological criteria. Pp. 177-186 in Engineering within Ecological Constraints, P. C. Schulze, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Primary production is the production of plant tissue by photosynthesis. Net primary production is gross primary production (the total amount of carbon fixation by photosynthesis) minus respiration (the consumption of the products of photosynthesis) by the plants.

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