JESSE H. AUSUBEL is director of the Program for the Human Environment and senior research associate at The Rockefeller University, as well as a program officer of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. His interests include environmental science and technology and industrial evolution. From 1989 to 1993, Ausubel served concurrently at The Rockefeller University and as director of studies for the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. From 1983 to 1988, he served as director of programs for the National Academy of Engineering. Prior to that, Ausubel served as a staff officer with the National Research Council Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. He was one of the principal organizers of the first U.N. World Climate Conference held in Geneva in 1979. From 1979 to 1981, Ausubel led the Climate Task Force of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, an East-West think-tank in Laxenburg, Austria, created by the U.S. and Soviet academies of sciences.

LESLIE W. AYRES worked as a systems and computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, IBM, and UNIVAC from 1953 through 1969. In 1970, she joined a small consulting firm in Washington, D.C., as an applications programmer, mainly on energy and environmental analysis. From 1977 to 1986, Ayres was president of Variflex Corp. and worked on various other projects, mainly in association with Robert U. Ayres. From 1987 to 1990, she was employed in the computer services department at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. Since 1992, Ayres has been a research associate in the Center for Management of Environmental Resources at the European Business School INSEAD, Fontainbluau, France, where she has coauthored several papers and a book, Industrial Ecology: Towards Closing the Materials Cycle (Edward Elgar Publishers, 1996).

ROBERT U. AYRES is Sandoz Professor of Environment and Management, professor of economics, and director of the Centre for the Management of Environmental Resources at the European Business School INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France. From 1979 to 1992, he was professor of engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. Ayres holds a Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Kings College, University of London. He has been affiliated with the Hudson Institute, Resources for the Future, and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Ayres has published more than 150 journal articles and book chapters and has authored or coauthored 12 books on topics ranging from technological change, manufacturing, and productivity, to environmental and resource economics. His most recent books are Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU Press, 1994), Information, Entropy, and Progress: A New Evolutionary Paradigm (AIP Press, 1994), and Industrial Ecology: Towards Closing the Materials Cycle (Edward Elgar Publishers, 1996).



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