standards, 89-92, 93-95

technology comparisons, sustainability, 79-80, 81

water pollution standards, 91-92

see also Food and feed processing;

Forestry and wood products

Air pollution

accounting methods, 66, 68, 69, 84-85, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108-109

agricultural sector, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108, 149, 150

chemical indicators, 124, 135, 151

chemicals industry, 124, 135, 151

emission control technologies, 42, 49-50, 56, 57, 146

energy requirements and, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150

food processing, 150

forestry and wood products, 108-109, 111, 112, 149, 150

fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151

greenhouse gases, 2, 40, 46, 58, 82, 101-102, 146

just-in-time inventory practices, 50

life-cycle analyses, 27, 36, 48, 50, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61

material metrics, 157, 158, 160, 162

metals processing, 140-141, 142

mineral fuels extraction/processing, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150

mining, other, 114, 150

ozone layer, 2, 43

net energy expenditure analyses, 27

stone, clay and glass industry, 145-146, 150

Ambient bioassays, 10, 199-216

chemical indicators, 203, 209, 210-211, 214

fish and fisheries, 204, 211

Analysis of variance methods, 205-210 (passim)

Aquatic ecosystems, see Benthic communities;

Bioassays;

Fish and fisheries;

Rivers

and streams;

Water pollution

Automobiles, see Motor vehicles

B

Benthic communities, 11, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270-273, 274, 278 , 280, 282

Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity, 233, 278

Best management practices, 92, 94-95, 244

Bioassays, 191-284

ambient, 10, 199-216

chemical indicators vs, 228-230, 231, 254

effluent, 3, 4, 7, 10, 199-201

fish, 11, 193, 194, 204, 211, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282

history of, 191-192, 217, 222, 223

limitations of, 194-197, 202, 213

Tennessee Valley Authority, ecological health assessment, 11, 260-284

see also Reservoirs;

Rivers and streams

Biodiversity, 10, 189-284 (passim)

ambient toxicity testing, 199-216

life-cycle analysis, 35, 39, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48

multimetric biotic indices, 11, 233-234

types of, defined, 4, 7, 10, 192-193, 199-202

Biological integrity, 9, 11, 89, 92, 227-256

Clean Water Act, 227, 230, 231-232, 243

defined, 233

Bureau of Mines, 114, 158

C

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, 147

Chalmers Institute of Technology, 35

Chemical indicators, 6, 9

accounting methods, 69, 89, 90-91, 102

air pollution, 124, 135, 151

ambient toxicity testing, 203, 209, 210-211, 214

bioassays vs, 228-230, 231, 254

effluent bioassays, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196

life-cycle analysis, 27, 38

TVA ecological assessment program, 261, 262, 267-277, 280, 282

Chemicals industry, 123, 125-138, 151

import/export, 125, 134, 135, 169

Chemical toxins, see Agricultural chemicals;

Bioassays;

Toxic substances

Chlorofluorocarbons, see Ozone layer

Clay industry, 145-146, 151

Clean Water Act, 42, 90, 91, 93, 191, 193, 217, 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, 262

biological integrity, 227, 230, 231-232, 243

see also Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Clean Water Initiative (TVA), 260

Coal mining, see Energy resource extraction and processing



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement