that companies view environmental waste, then each and every employee must play an integral part in the program.
The objective of the 3M waste-measurement system is to obtain a single number for each division. Existing databases contain extensive information that, if properly integrated, can be used to calculate the amounts of waste generated. Taking advantage of that information, 3M divides waste measurement into five easily measured categories: chemical waste, trash, organic waste (in air and water), particulate waste (in air), and water waste (excluding the water itself). (We do not need to measure each specific waste stream, but we do need to measure all of the wastes generated by a division or facility.)
Chemical waste is defined as all the material included on a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act manifest. Determining the quantity generated is as simple as tapping into the database that contains the manifest information. If this information is not in a database, the quantities can be calculated by hand. If manifest information is not available, the facility and the company's management have a much greater problem than measuring waste.
Most major landfills in the United States weigh the amount of trash sent to their facilities, normally with a truck scale. Therefore, it is generally fairly easy to make arrangements with the landfill operator to obtain this information. If the local landfill does not weigh the trucks, it is relatively simple and inexpensive to find a local truck scale that can make the necessary measurements.
Measuring organic wastes can be difficult, especially for releases into the air from fugitive sources. The problem can be considerably simplified by taking a materials-balance perspective. Organic waste is the amount of organic material brought into the plant, minus the amount that goes out as product, is shipped off site as chemical waste or for recycling, and is consumed or transformed in a chemical reaction. Each of these individual items is relatively easy to calculate. Purchasing records should show the amount of total volatile organics brought into the plant. The amount shipped as chemical waste should be available from the manifests. The amount shipped for recycling should be available from shipping records. The amount consumed in chemical reactions should be available from production- or process-engineering yield data. The remainder is the volatile organic material that is waste before it is subjected to treatment or pollution con-