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--> Biographical Sketches of Committee Members CAROLYNE K. DAVIS (Chair), R.N., Ph.D., is a national and international health care adviser to Ernst & Young. She received her B.S. in nursing from the Johns Hopkins University, and the M.S. in nursing and the Ph.D. in higher education administration from Syracuse University. She has been chair of the baccalaureate nursing program at Syracuse University and held many positions at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, including dean of the school of nursing, professor of both nursing and education, and associate vice president for academic affairs. Following this, she became the fourth administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration and held that position from 1981 to 1985. As administrator, Dr. Davis oversaw the functions of the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which finance health care services for 54 million poor, elderly, and disabled Americans. She is a member of the editorial board of the journal Nursing Economics and has more than 100 publications on a wide variety of issues concerning the health care system. Dr. Davis has received many honorary degrees and alumni awards, is on the board of directors or is a member of the board of several corporations, and is a member of the Institute of Medicine. FRANK A. SLOAN (Cochair), Ph.D., is the Alexander McMahon professor of health policy and management and professor of economics at Duke University. He did his undergraduate work at Oberlin College and received his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Before joining the faculty at Duke last summer, he was a research economist at the RAND Corporation and was on the faculties of the University of Florida and Vanderbilt University. His current
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--> research interests include long-term care and medical malpractice. Dr. Sloan also has a long-standing interest in the costs and financing of medical education. He has served on several national advisory groups, is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and until recently was a member of the IOM's Council. DYANNE D. AFFONSO, Ph.D., is dean and professor at the Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, and associate professor in the Women's and Children's Division of the School of Public Health. Previously, she was a faculty member at the School of Nursing of the University of California at San Francisco and the College of Nursing, University of Arizona. Beginning in the late 1970s, Dr. Affonso conducted research exploring women's experiences with cesarean childbirth. Her publications of these important findings resulted in national recognition of her contribution to perinatal health care, including her appointment as the first nurse to serve on the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In this capacity, she was an active participant in the 1980 Consensus Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean, which led to a major change in obstetrical philosophy and practice regarding methods of childbirth. She continues to be a productive leader in a variety of maternal–child health topics, and plays an active role in recruitment and mentoring of minority women in biomedical careers. In addition to her work on the NICHD Advisory Council, Dr. Affonso was a member of the Task Force on Recruitment, Retention, Re-entry, and Advancement of Women in Biomedical Careers for the Office of Research on Women's Health; and the Panel on Women's Health of the American Academy of Nursing. She cochaired the Priority Expert Panel on Prevention and Care of Low BirthWeight Infants for the National Center for Nursing Research, NIH, and participated in a workshop on mental disorders in pregnancy and postpartum for the National Institute of Mental Health. She is the first non-Nordic citizen to be appointed to the Scientific Council of Sweden's Nordic School of Public Health and has been elected to the Institute of Medicine and the American Academy of Nursing. Her other honors include March of Dimes National Nurse of the Year and American Nurses Association Maternal–Child Nurse of the Year. She is a member of the International Council of Psychology, the Society of Behavioral Medicine, and the Nursing Association of the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Dr. Affonso is a frequent invited speaker at international, national, and regional conferences. She has served as a reviewer for leading journals on women's health issues and is the author of numerous publications, including Childbearing: A Nursing Perspective, which won an American Journal of Nursing Book of the Year Award. Recent publications focus on health issues for women from ethnically diverse and rural backgrounds, with an emphasis on Asian Pacific Islanders.
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--> JAMES F. BLUMSTEIN, LL.B., holds a B.A. in economics from Yale College, an M.A. in economics from Yale University, and an LL.B. from Yale Law School. He is currently a professor of law at Vanderbilt Law School, a senior fellow at the Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies, and an adjunct professor of health law at Dartmouth Medical School. He was the John M. Olin Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School in the spring of 1989, and a visiting associate professor of law and policy sciences at Duke Law School during 1974–1975. He is a recipient of the Earl Sutherland Prize for Research at Vanderbilt University and the Paul Hartman Award for Teaching at the Vanderbilt Law School. Professor Blumstein is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine and is a contributor to professional journals on health policy issues. DONALD L. CHENSVOLD, R.N., is president of Healthcare of Iowa, Inc., a nursing facility management corporation based in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The company operates 19 for-profit and not-for-profit facilities in the State of Iowa. Mr. Chensvold is licensed as a nursing home administrator in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Nebraska; as a licensed practical nurse; and as a registered nurse. He is chairman of the Iowa Health Care Association Facility Standards Committee, which deals with regulatory issues related to long-term care, and is vice president of the Iowa Health Care Association. Mr. Chensvold is a regional representative to the American Health Care Association (AHCA) Facility Standards Committee and served as a member of the AHCA Clinical Practice Guideline Subcommittee for Nutrition Care and Services for Long-Term Care Residents. He has also served on numerous state and national committees dealing with long-term care issues, and chaired a Model Standards Committee for the development of clinical practice guidelines on the use of physical and chemical restraints in long-term care facilities. Mr. Chensvold has served in the capacity of orderly, licensed practical nurse, registered nurse, director of nursing, or administrator in numerous nursing facilities in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Nebraska. He attended Upper Iowa University in Fayette, Iowa. LINDA HAWES CLEVER, M.D., founding chairman of the Department of Occupational Health at California Pacific Medical Center and editor of the Western Journal of Medicine, received undergraduate and medical degrees from Stanford University. After interning at Stanford, she had several years of medical residency and fellowships at Stanford and the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Clever is board certified in internal medicine and occupational medicine. In 1970, Dr. Clever became the first medical director of the teaching clinic at St. Mary's Hospital in San Francisco, where she started a nurse practitioner training and research program. In 1977, she became the founding chairman of the Department of Occupational Health at the Pacific Medical Center and began her activities in the American College of Physicians in which she now serves on the Board of Regents. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the Western
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--> Association of Physicians, and is a clinical professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. Her areas of special interest include the health of health care workers, AIDS, leadership, managed care, ethics, medical journalology, care of elders (her father is a resident of a convalescent center), and numerous organizations including Stanford University, the radio station KQED, and White House Fellows. Dr. Clever chaired the development committee for senior services at California Pacific Medical Center and serves on the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Board of Directors. JOYCE C. CLIFFORD, R.N., M.S.N., F.A.A.N., is vice president for nursing and nurse-in-chief at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston and holds a visiting scholar appointment at Boston College School of Nursing. She is an established author and consultant on the subject of organizational restructuring and the development of a professional practice model and has spoken both nationally and internationally. Her past nursing experiences include multiple nursing positions and both active and reserve duty in the U.S. Air Force Nurse Corps. She has also served on the faculty of several nursing schools, has been recognized with numerous awards and honorary doctorates, and serves on the editorial advisory boards of several nursing journals. Among many other affiliations and honors, she is a fellow of the American Academy of Nurses, former president of the American Organization of Nurse Executives, and a former trustee of the American Hospital Association. She is a graduate of St. Anselm College, received the masters' in nursing from the University of Alabama, and is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the field of health planning and policy analysis at the Heller School of Brandeis University. EDWARD J. CONNORS is president emeritus of Mercy Health Services (MHS) and former chair of the American Hospital Association (AHA) Board of Trustees. Mr. Connors served as president and chief executive officer of MHS from 1976 to 1993. Mercy Health Services is a Farmington Hills, Michigan, based nonprofit health care system sponsored by the Sisters of Mercy Regional Community of Detroit. Mr. Connors has more than 35 years of experience in the health care field. He has held academic and management leadership positions at the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals. Mr. Connors is a member of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Board of Commissioners and serves on the boards of AHA's Hospital Research and Educational Trust; Eastern Mercy Health System in Radnor, Pennsylvania; and Sisters of Providence Health System in Springfield, Massachusetts. He is also the former chair of the American Healthcare Systems Board of Governors. In 1988, Mr. Connors completed a 1-year appointment to the Secretary's Commission on Nursing, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. He is an International King's Fund Fellow and a member of the Institute of Medicine, and has lectured and published extensively on the topic of health care. Mr. Connors holds a master's degree in hospital administration from
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--> the University of Minnesota and currently provides consultation services to health care organizations through the Connors/Roberts and Associates firm. ARTHUR COOPER, M.D., is associate professor of clinical surgery at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University and chief of pediatric surgical critical care at the Harlem Hospital Center, as well as attending surgeon at the Babies' and Children's Hospital of New York of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. He obtained his baccalaureate at Harvard College and his doctorate at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, where he also undertook training in general surgery, pediatric surgery, and surgical critical care; he is certified by the American Board of Surgery in all three specialties. Dr. Cooper also holds a master's degree in human nutrition from Columbia University, is a member of numerous professional and scientific societies, has written more than 100 articles and textbook chapters, serves on a variety of national and regional expert committees, and is a recognized authority in the fields of pediatric surgical nutrition, critical care, trauma, and emergency medical services—particularly pediatric prehospital emergency care—as well as physical child abuse and the surgical care of children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. ALLYSON ROSS DAVIES, Ph.D., M.P.H., is an independent health care consultant. Until March 1994, she was the senior program advisor to the Measurement & Monitoring Initiative at the New England Medical Center. In that role, Dr. Davies facilitated hospital-wide efforts to build into ongoing quality assurance and improvement activities the collection, interpretation, and use of patient-based assessments of their health status and consumers' assessments of the quality of care and services. From 1988 through 1992, she was the first director of the New England Medical Center's Department of Quality Assessment. From 1975 to 1988, she was a health policy analyst at the RAND Corporation. Dr. Davies received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles. Dr. Davies has published and lectured widely on the development of patient-based assessments of health status and quality of care and their use in outcomes assessment and quality improvement, and her consulting practice focuses on these topics. ERIKA SIVARAJAN FROELICHER, R.N., Ph.D., is a professor of Nursing and Epidemiology at the University of California, San Francisco. She is a graduate of the University of Washington, Seattle, School of Nursing where she earned a B.S. and an M.A. in nursing (Minoring in business administration). Her masters' degree in public health, doctorate in public health-epidemiology, and Minor in biostatistics were earned at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health. She has more than 20 years' experience in clinical practice, teaching, and research in cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation. Dr. Froelicher is a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing, the American
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--> Heart Association Council of Cardiovascular Nursing, and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. She is one of 12 founding editorial board members of the Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation. She serves on the editorial boards of Health and Lung, American Journal of Critical Care, and Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. She is a member of the American Heart Association Committee on Exercise and Rehabilitation and has served on the American College of Cardiology Prevention Committee. She has served as a peer reviewer for the Health Failure and Unstable Angina Clinical Practice Guidelines and has participated in numerous Agency for Health Care Policy and Research meetings to identify priorities for guideline development. Dr. Froelicher's program of research has focused on studying the efficacy of activity and exercise prescription, education, and counseling in patients with heart disease, as well as risk factor reduction using education-counseling and behavioral interventions to reduce risk, improve adherence, and enhance quality of life. Dr. Froelicher has published extensively: textbook, chapters, and scientific and professional articles on exercise testing, patient and family education, counseling, and behavioral interventions. CHARLENE A. HARRINGTON, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N., professor and chair of the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco. She is a nurse and sociologist who is a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and a member of the American Nurses Association Task Force on Reimbursement. She has been the principal investigator for several large national research studies on state policies in long-term care and their effects on utilization and expenditures, funded by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). After conducting the National Evaluation of the Social/Health Maintenance Organization (SHMO) Demonstration Projects with her colleagues for 7 years, she and her colleagues are providing technical assistance to the new second generation of SHMOs for the HCFA. In 1994, she coedited a book entitled Health Policy and Nursing and she teaches courses on health care economics and health policy. MARK C. HORNBROOK, Ph.D., is a health economist and a senior investigator and director of the research program in health services, social, and economic studies at the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research (CHR). His current research focuses on payment systems for health maintenance organizations (HMO) under private and public health insurance programs. With support from the Health Care Financing Administration, he is developing morbidity-based risk models to adjust payments to health plans to counter selection bias. In collaboration with the Washington State Health Care Authority and the University of Washington, he is working to develop morbidity and demographic prediction models to adjust payments to health plans participating in the Washington public employee health benefits program. In a third project, he is collaborating with the
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--> Pacific Business Group on Health and the University of California, San Francisco, to create social survey risk models to assist employers in evaluating health plan premiums. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports these latter two projects. Dr. Hornbrook's other research activities have included a demonstration of an HMO-based geriatric assessment and care coordination model for primary care; a randomized trial of a physical fitness program to reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries among older persons; a randomized trial of outreach and treatment of depressed adolescents in an HMO; and cost–benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of several innovative health promotion and health care delivery programs related to smoking cessation, cancer screening, mental illness, and childhood asthma. Dr. Hornbrook received a master's degree in economics from the University of Denver in 1969 and a Ph.D. in medical care organization, with emphasis in health economics, from the University of Michigan in 1975. As a program director at the CHR, he directs a team of 12 other senior and junior investigators along with their scientific support staff. He also holds a part-time academic appointment as professor in the Community Health Care Systems Department of the School of Nursing, Oregon Health Sciences University. Currently, Dr. Hornbrook also serves on the Scientific Review and Evaluation Board of the Health Services Research and Development Service, Department of Veterans Affairs. RONALD E. KUTSCHER is associate commissioner, Office of Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics. He is responsible for the program in the Bureau of Labor Statistics that (1) develops 5- to 10-year projections of the U.S. economy, covering the gross national product, industry output, productivity, and employment by industry and occupation; and (2) prepares the Occupational Outlook Handbook and other career guidance and training materials. Mr. Kutscher has held many positions within the Bureau of Labor Statistics, including economist, assistant chief for research, and assistant commissioner for economic growth. His expertise in the areas of the labor market, employment forecasting, technical aspects of converting statistical programs, and secondary education has resulted in invitations to act in various capacities, including consultant, lecturer, and member of two U.S. delegations in the former republics of the Soviet Union, Hungary, South Korea, Indonesia, and France. He received the B.A. from Doane College, Nebraska, with a major in economics and pursued graduate work in economics at the University of Illinois and Washington, D.C., area universities. SUE LONGHENRY, M.S., R.N., is a certified gerontological nurse practitioner. She started her career in long-term care more than 12 years ago when she was a clinical instructor for practical nurse students. She has been a care plan coordinator, assistant director of nursing, and for the past 8 years, director of nursing in a 260 skilled-bed facility in Columbus, Ohio. This facility has been delivering subacute care for more than 10 years and has a 30-bed adult ventilator
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--> unit, a 20-bed pediatric ventilator unit, a hospice unit, a short-term orthopedic rehabilitation unit, and a 16-bed medical-complex unit. Ms. Longhenry now works part-time for the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations as a field surveyor for long-term care and subacute facilities, and also consults with facilities needing help in developing subacute units. She is a past president of the National Association of Directors of Nursing Administration/Long-Term Care. ELLIOTT C. ROBERTS, SR., M.A., is a professor in the Department of Health Systems Research and Public Health at the Louisiana State University Medical School. He is also an adjunct professor and preceptor in the Department of Health Systems Management at Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. In his previous position as chief executive officer of the Medical Center of Louisiana (formerly Charity Hospital at New Orleans), he assisted in the implementation of the reorganization of the Louisiana State Department of Health and Human Resources, which ultimately became the Louisiana Health Care Authority. Mr. Robert's prior positions include chief executive officer of Cook County Hospital in Chicago, vice president and associate project director for Hyatt Medical Management Services, and commissioner of hospitals and executive director of Detroit General Hospital. He also served as executive director at Harlem Hospital Center and Mercy Douglass Hospital in Philadelphia. An active member of the American Hospital Association, Mr. Roberts served on its board of trustees for 5 years as well as on the nominating committee, in the House of Delegates, and in other capacities. He is a past chairman of the Metropolitan Hospital Constituency Section of the AHA. Mr. Roberts has held similar positions of responsibility at the National Association of Public Hospitals and the Association of American Medical Colleges' Council on Teaching Hospitals. He is also a diplomate of the American College of Healthcare Executives. In addition to many other appointments, Mr. Roberts served on the Secretary's Commission on Nursing, Department of Health and Human Services. He received a B.A. from Morgan State College and an M.A. in business administration-hospital administration from the George Washington University.
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