Index

A

A. See Ampere (A)

Abortions, spontaneous, 181

ac. See Alternating current (ac)

ß-actin, 65-66

Acute lethality. See Toxicologic studies

Acute lymphocytic leukemia. See Leukemia, in children

Acute myelogenous leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults

Acute myeloid leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults

Age of home, 159, 163, 206

Age of onset, 266, 268-270, 272, 274, 276

Air pollution, 118, 163, 174

Alkylating agents, 341

Alternating current (ac), 11n, 22-24, 338

animals able to detect, 74, 90-91, 93, 198

Ambient levels. See Environmental fields

Ampere (A), 338

per square meter, 339

Analgesia mediation effects, 92

Animal experiments, 7, 40-44, 73-106

applicability to humans, 75-76, 194

mammalian, 83-89

nonmammalian, 82-83, 87-88

Anisotropies, 51

defined, 338

Anti-CD3 antibody, 60-61

Appliances, electric, 1, 4, 11, 16-17, 29-31

fields associated with, 12-13, 29-30, 50, 171, 176-179, 183-184, 204, 255, 295

Artifacts. See Experimental artifacts, potential

ATPase activity, 61

Attenuation, field, 4, 58

B

Baboons, studies of, 240, 253

Behavioral effects, 3, 7, 10, 13-14, 73-74, 90-94, 185-189, 238-239

from electric fields, 90-91, 247

from magnetic fields, 91-93, 244-247

Bias, 126, 147.

See also Information bias;

Selection bias

Bifilar windings, 42

defined, 338

Biologic effects, 4-8, 14-16, 46-51

importance of, 17

research needs, 206-208

Biophysical modeling, research needs, 205, 207



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Index A A. See Ampere (A) Abortions, spontaneous, 181 ac. See Alternating current (ac) ß-actin, 65-66 Acute lethality. See Toxicologic studies Acute lymphocytic leukemia. See Leukemia, in children Acute myelogenous leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults Acute myeloid leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults Age of home, 159, 163, 206 Age of onset, 266, 268-270, 272, 274, 276 Air pollution, 118, 163, 174 Alkylating agents, 341 Alternating current (ac), 11n, 22-24, 338 animals able to detect, 74, 90-91, 93, 198 Ambient levels. See Environmental fields Ampere (A), 338 per square meter, 339 Analgesia mediation effects, 92 Animal experiments, 7, 40-44, 73-106 applicability to humans, 75-76, 194 mammalian, 83-89 nonmammalian, 82-83, 87-88 Anisotropies, 51 defined, 338 Anti-CD3 antibody, 60-61 Appliances, electric, 1, 4, 11, 16-17, 29-31 fields associated with, 12-13, 29-30, 50, 171, 176-179, 183-184, 204, 255, 295 Artifacts. See Experimental artifacts, potential ATPase activity, 61 Attenuation, field, 4, 58 B Baboons, studies of, 240, 253 Behavioral effects, 3, 7, 10, 13-14, 73-74, 90-94, 185-189, 238-239 from electric fields, 90-91, 247 from magnetic fields, 91-93, 244-247 Bias, 126, 147. See also Information bias; Selection bias Bifilar windings, 42 defined, 338 Biologic effects, 4-8, 14-16, 46-51 importance of, 17 research needs, 206-208 Biophysical modeling, research needs, 205, 207

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Bipartite thoracic centra, 338 Birth defects. See Reproductive studies Blankets, electric. See Electric blankets Blood melatonin concentration effects. See Melatonin concentration effects Bone. See also Skeletal anomalies cell biology of, 108-109 electromagnetic properties of, 109-110 Bone density, enhancing, 109 Bone healing, 2, 6, 8, 53, 71-72, 74, 106-115 appliances for, 111 possible mechanisms of, 112, 115 research needs, 207 Brain tumors, 169, 172, 177-179, 195, 279 in adults, 171, 180-181 in children, 269-271 Breast cancer, 179, 181, 223-225 in animals, 7, 73, 81, 116, 193, 208 Building codes, 2 C C. See Coulomb (C) Cable radiant heating. See Electric heating, of homes Calcium concentrations, intracellular, changes in, 52-53, 58, 60, 64, 66-72, 112, 220-222 efflux, 67-70, 221, 227 oscillations in, 71 Calculations. See Field calculations Cancellation in three-phase transmission lines, 32 Cancers, 1-3, 10, 14, 17-18, 127, 255-265, 279, 338 in adults, 126, 263-265. See also Brain tumors; Leukemia; Nervous system tumors; Testicular cancer in animals. See Animal experiments; Breast cancer case and control selection, 258-259 in children, 126, 146-158, 170, 185, 202, 204, 258-263, 266-278. See also Leukemia; Lymphomas exposure assessment. See Exposure assessment ovarian, treating. See Trenimon structure of studies, 255-257 Carcinogenicity, 52, 54-55, 73, 79-81, 223-225. See also Toxicologic studies Carcinogens. See also 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) animals treated with, 7 defined, 79-80, 338-339 magnetic field interactions with, 79 Cats, studies of, 239, 242 Cattle, studies of, 87, 226 Causality, establishing, 119, 123-126, 163-165 Cell culture studies. See In vitro studies Cell growth effects, 13, 106-115 Cell membranes. See Membranes Cell metabolism effects, 13 Cellular phones, 10 Central nervous system effects, 18, 55, 95 Chemicals, hazardous, 180 Chickens, studies of, 67-70, 83, 87-88, 226-228, 232, 243, 245 Childhood leukemia. See Leukemia Chondrogenesis, 112-114 Chromatid exchanges. See Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) Chromodacryorrhea, 104, 338 Chromosomal aberrations, 55-56, 210-219 Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults Chronic myelogenous leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults Chronic toxicity. See Toxicologic studies CI. See Confidence interval (CI) Circadian cycle. See Melatonin concentration effects CIRRPC. See Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) c-myc, 64-66 Cocarcinogenicity. See Toxicologic studies Combined probability test, 136 Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC), 338 Commuter trains. See Trains, intercity

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Concanavalin-A (Con-A), 60, 72 Conduction currents, induced, 46 Confidence interval (CI), 126, 141-142, 338 Configuration, wiring. See Wire codes; Wiring configuration Confounders, 122-123, 125-128, 158-163, 174-175, 266-284 research needs, 202-203 Consumption levels of electric energy, 159 rising through time, 175-176 Control-selection bias, 155 Copromotion studies. See Toxicologic studies Copulatory behavior reduced in animals, 84, 227 Cost factors. See Electromagnetic fields (EMF), cost to control Coulomb (C), 338 per second, 338 per square meter, 23, 338 Counts per minute (cpm), 338 Coupled fields, 4, 13, 23 cpm. See Counts per minute (cpm) Current densities endogenous, 5, 22, 51 induced. See Induced fields and currents Current flows, 4, 339. See also Impedance Cut points, 135, 141-143, 168, 174, 206 D Day-care exposures, 171 dc. See Direct current (dc) DEB. See Diethylbenzene (DEB) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 63, 194, 197, 339 agents interacting with, 55, 57, 80 double-strand breaks in, 217 repair, 215 single-strand breaks in, 213-216, 218-219 synthesis increased, 114 unscheduled synthesis, 215 Depression, 187-188 Developmental studies, 1, 10, 14, 73, 82-90, 181-185, 199, 226-237. See also Skeletal anomalies; Toxicologic studies developmental retardation, 237 Developmental toxins, 55 Diagnostic Inventory Survey, 188 Dielectric constant, 23 Dielectric properties of tissues and cells, 46 Diethylbenzene (DEB), 57 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), 80-82, 224-225, 339 Direct current (dc), 22, 69, 112, 339 Disease. See also Wire codes diagnoses, 3 shift of interest to magnetic fields, 11, 36, 105 unclear linkage of fields to, 5, 40, 53 Displacement currents, 339 induced, 46 vector, 23, 338 Distribution lines. See Transmission and distribution lines DMBA. See 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) DNA. See Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Dose-response relationship, 47, 74-75, 98, 125, 145-146, 173-174, 201, 248 assessment of, 193, 196 research needs, 207 E Earth's static magnetic field, 4, 13, 16-17, 69, 339 experimental corrections for, 46 Eddy currents, 48, 101 Effect modification, 122-123 Electric appliances. See Appliances, electric Electric blankets, 11, 30, 102, 123, 171, 177-178, 183-184 Electric fields defined, 11-13, 22-25 easily attenuated, 4, 13. See also Perturbation effects exposure to, 1-2, 3-8, 14-15, 27-28, 40-41, 44, 47-48, 210-243, 248 -249, 253-284. See also Wire codes strength of, 4, 23-27 time rate of change, 339 Electric flux density, 23, 338

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Electric heating of beds, 177, 184 of homes, 28, 183 Electric power lines. See Transmission and distribution lines Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), 27, 31-32, 34-35, 290293 Electrocardiogram, 4 Electrode types, 44 implanted in bone, 110 microelectrodes, 70 Electroencephalogram, 4 Electromagnetic fields (EMF). See also Spot measurements cost to control, 17-18 defined, 11-13, 23, 339 mystery surrounding, 17 therapeutic effects of. See Bone healing time-weighted average measurements, 39-40 Electromagnetic properties of bone. See Bone, electromagnetic properties of Electromagnetic spectrum, 12 ELF. See Extremely low frequency (ELF) Embryo. See Sternebra EMF. See Electromagnetic fields (EMF) Endogenous current densities. See Current densities, endogenous Energy Policy Act of 1992, 208 Environmental fields, 21, 31-32, 200, 267. See also Earth's static magnetic field research needs, 204-206 Enzyme activities, 59. See also Membranes Epidemiological studies, 2-3, 14-15, 36-46, 117-190, 199, 291 reliability issues, 3, 118-126, 156, 199 research needs, 200-204 EPRI. See Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) Experimental artifacts, potential, 22, 42 Exposure assessment, 14-15, 21-51, 121-122, 126-127, 193, 196, 260 -265. See also Electric fields; Magnetic fields; Risk assessment methods, 25-27 reliability issues, 166-167 Exposure meters, 27 Extremely low frequency (ELF), 4, 12, 127, 182, 184, 339 F F0. See Permeability, of free space (F0) Fail-safe N, 136, 142, 145 False negatives. See Information bias Faraday's law, 48 Fetal abnormalities. See Terata Field attenuation. See Attenuation, field Field calculations, 27, 39, 143 Field cancellation, partial, 41 Field measurements, 266, 269, 272, 274, 276, 282 Field strength. See Electric fields; Magnetic fields Fields. See Coupled fields; Electric fields; Electromagnetic fields (EMF); Independent fields; Induced fields and currents; Magnetic fields; Rotating fields; Spatially-varying fields; Time-varying fields; Unchanging fields Fish, studies of, 82-83, 228 Fixed-effects model, 136-137 Fluorescent lights, 33 Flux density. See Electric flux density; Magnetic flux density fos, 53, 64, 339 Fourier analysis, 24 Frequency, 11n, 23, 24, 26, 339. See also Extremely low frequency (ELF); Harmonics; High frequency; Low frequency; Very low frequency (VLF) G G. See Gauss (G) g. See Permittivity, medium (g) g0. See Permittivity, of free space (g0) Gauss (G), 12-13, 23-24, 339 Gene expression, changes in, 6, 13, 52-53, 58, 63-66. See also Signal-transduction pathways, changes in Generating stations, 8. See also Transmission and distribution lines

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Genes, early response, 53. See also fos; jun; myc Genotoxicity, 52-55, 56-58, 210-219. See also Chromosomal aberrations; Mutations GH. See Growth hormone (GH) effects Glandular effects. See Neuroendocrine responses Gray (Gy), 339 Grounding system, residential, 28, 205, 295, 301 Growth hormone (GH) effects, 104, 114 Growth retardation, fetal. See Reproductive studies Gy. See Gray (Gy) H Hamsters, studies of, 252 Harmonics, 25 defined, 5, 339 Hazard identification, 192-195 Hazardous chemicals. See Chemicals, hazardous Headaches, 187-189 Health effects. See Behavioral effects; Cancer; Central nervous system effects; Developmental studies; Disease; Learning disabilities; Reproductive studies Heating, electric. See Electric heating Helmholtz coils, 41, 45, 111 Herbicides, 174 Heritable changes, 55-58 Hertz (Hz), 11n, 339 Heterogeneity, 22, 136-137, 143 defined, 339 High frequency, 13, 35 High-voltage transmission lines. See Transmission and distribution lines HIOMT. See Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) HIV-LTR expression, 219 Hodgkin's disease, 279 Home appliances. See Appliances, electric Home exposures. See Age of home; Residential exposures Home wiring, 4, 28. See also Transmission and distribution lines Homogeneity, 143 defined, 339 Hormonal changes. See Neuroendocrine responses Humans, studies of, 245, 254 6-Hydroxy melatonin sulfate, urinary, 254 Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), 98, 249, 339 Hz. See Hertz (Hz) I ICR. See Ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) model Impedance, 23, 339 In vitro studies, 15, 43, 55-72, 210-219. See also Mammalian cells; Prokaryotic cells defined, 339 on exposure, 6, 44-46, 52-72 extrapolations from, 55 limits of, 53-54 possible effects. See Calcium concentrations, intracellular, changes in; Carcinogenicity; Gene expression, changes in; Genotoxicity reliability issues, 57, 61, 63 In vivo studies, 15 defined, 339 on exposure, 6-8, 40-44 Independent fields, 4 Induced fields and currents, 4, 22, 41, 46-51 Helmholtz induction, 111 Influence analysis, 136-137 Information bias, 120-122, 155-158, 170, 187 Inheritable changes, 55-58 Instrumentation, 26-27 research needs, 204 unavailability of, 164 Intermittent exposure, 56 Interspecies scaling, 44, 48-50 Intracellular calcium concentrations. See Calcium concentrations, intracellular, changes in

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Intrinsic impedance. See Impedance Ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) model, 70-71 Ion pump activity, 61 Ionizing radiation, 12 absorbed dose of, 339 Isotropic, defied, 339 J Joule, 339 jun, 53, 64, 339 L Laboratory studies, 15, 204-208 Leading edge, 24 Learning disabilities, 10, 13-14, 185 Lethality, acute. See Toxicologic studies Leukemia, 169, 172, 195, 223, 279 in adults, 126, 162, 171, 177, 179-181 in children, 2-3, 11, 25, 117-118, 122-123, 126-146, 160-163, 174, 178, 197, 255-257, 266-268 Light, velocity of, 12 Long-term average measurements. See Electromagnetic fields (EMF), time-weighted average measurements Low frequency, 8, 13, 23, 35, 68, 70. See also Extremely low frequency (ELF); Very low frequency (VLF) Low-voltage lines, 29 Lymphocytic leukemia. See Leukemia, in children Lymphomas, 179-180, 223, 279 in children, 126, 134, 272-273 lyn kinase, 62 M Magnetic fields ambient levels. See Environmental fields cancellation of, 32 defined, 22-25, 11-13 difficult to attenuate, 4, 36 exposure to, 1-2, 3-8, 14-15, 28-36, 41-46, 48-53, 127-128, 163-172 , 210-239, 244-247, 250-284. See also Wire codes research needs, 203-204 shielding from, 13, 41 strength of, 2, 3-4, 15-17, 22-23, 26-27, 126, 156, 165-170, 290-301 , 339 Magnetic flux density, 23, 26-27, 35, 338-339. See also Gauss (G); Tesla (T) Magnetite in bodily tissues, 23 Malformations, children with, 184 Malignant melanoma, 179. See also Skin tumors Mammalian cells, 54, 63 Mammary tumors. See Breast cancer Marijuana smoking, 161 Maxwell's equations, 12-13, 22, 46, 48 Media bridges, 44 Medical X-ray exposures, 123 Melanoma, malignant. See Malignant melanoma Melatonin concentration effects, 7-8, 62-63, 74, 95-102 on animals, 96-102, 105, 248-249, 250-253 on humans, 102, 254 suppression of secretions, 105-107 Membranes, 60 cell, 58-62, 112, 113 proteins in, 59 Meta-analyses, 128-146 defined, 128-129 methodology, 134-137 summarized, 140, 255-257 5-Methosytryptophol, 248 Mice, studies of, 83-84, 88, 114, 223-224, 228-232, 237, 240, 242247 Micronuclei, 213, 218-219 Military exposure, 10 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 188 Misclassification. See Information bias Mitogens, 61-62 Mobility of residents, 154, 157, 159, 168, 188, 276 Molecular biologic investigation. See Carcinogenicity; Genotoxicity Monkeys, studies of, 238, 247 Morphine, analgesic effects mediated, 92, 244

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Morphologic studies, 250 mRNA transcripts, 63-66 Mutations, 55-56, 210 myc, 53, 64-65, 340 Myelogenous leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults Myeloid leukemia. See Leukemia, in adults N Na, K-ATPase, 61 N-Acetyltransferase activity (NAT), 97-99, 248-249, 340 NAT. See N-Acetyltransferase activity (NAT) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), 18, 129, 134 Neoplastic transformations, 216 Nerve stimulation, 13 Nerve tissue electric activity, 4-5 Nervous system tumors, 134 Neurobehavioral effects. See Behavioral effects Neurobiologic dysfunction, 1, 10, 240-243 Neurochemical studies, 94-102 reliability issues, 105-106 Neuroendocrine responses, 7-8, 13, 73-74, 84, 94, 103-105, 199, 241 Neurohormonal changes. See Neuroendocrine responses Neuropsychologic performance, 189 Nitrites in processed meats, 161 NMU. See N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU), 57, 82, 224, 340 NOEL. See No-observable-effect level (NOEL) Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 279 Nonionizing radiation, 18 Nonparticipation bias. See Participation rates No-observable-effect level (NOEL), 77 NRPB. See National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) Nucleus, 340. See also Prokaryotic cells O Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) report, 18, 24-25, 154-155 Occupational exposures, 33-36, 40, 108, 162, 171-172, 179-181, 184 , 188-189, 198 ODC. See Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity Odds ratio (OR), 129, 134, 141-144, 162, 168, 170, 340 Office environment. See Occupational exposures Office of Technology Assessment, 18 Opiate mediation effects, 93 OR. See Odds ratio (OR) ORAU. See Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) report Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, 53, 61-62, 115 Ossification, 340 primordial points of. See Bipartite thoracic centra; Semipartite thoracic centra Osteogenesis, 222. See also Bone healing Osteonecrosis, treating, 111 Osteoporosis. See also Bone density, enhancing disuse, 111, 113 P Parathyroid hormone effects (PTH), 114-115 Participation rates, 150-151, 154 PCB. See Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) leakage PCR. See Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) analysis Permeability of free space (F0), 23, 339 medium, 23 Permittivity, 340 of free space (g0), 23, 339 medium (g), 23, 339 Perturbation effects, 25, 47 Pesticide use, 267 Phorbol ester. See12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) Phosphenes, endogenous, 91 Piezoelectric, defined, 340

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Piezoelectric properties of bone. See Bone, electromagnetic properties of Pigeons, studies of, 242-243 Pineal gland function effects, 7-8, 62-63, 74, 95-99, 105, 248-253 PKC. See Protein kinase C (PKC) Plasma membrane. See Membranes Police exposure, 10 Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) leakage, 174 Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) analysis, 65-66 Power line fields. See Alternating current (ac) Power lines. See Transmission and distribution lines Power stations. See Transmission and distribution lines Primaries, distribution. See Transmission and distribution lines Primordial ossification points. See Bipartite thoracic centra; Semipartite thoracic centra Probabilities. See Combined probability test Prokaryotic cells, 54, 340 Protein kinase C (PKC), 64, 115, 340 activation of, 53, 62 Proximity to power lines. See Transmission and distribution lines, distance from Prudent avoidance, policy of, 18-19 PTH. See Parathyroid hormone effects (PTH) Pulsed fields electric, 72, 112 exposure to, 57 magnetic, 8, 74, 88-89, 99, 112 Q Quantification. See Risk assessment R Rabbits, studies of, 110, 114, 241 Radar operator exposure, 10 Radiant heating. See Electric heating, of homes Radiation. See Ionizing radiation; Nonionizing radiation Railroads, electric. See Subways; Trains, intercity Random digit dialing, 152-154, 157 reliability issues, 202 Random error, 119-120, 128, 157 Random-effects model, 136-137, 143-144 Rats, studies of, 84-86, 89, 104, 223-227, 229-230, 232-245, 247-252 Rectangular waveforms. See Waveforms, rectangular ''Red tears." See Chromodacryorrhea Relative risk (RR), 340 Repeated-dose studies. See Toxicologic studies Representativeness of cases, 147-152 of controls, 152-154 Reproductive studies, 1, 3, 10, 14, 73, 82-90, 181-185, 199, 226-237. See also Toxicologic studies birth defects, 182 fetal growth retardation, 183, 229 low birth weight, 226 premature termination of pregnancy, 14, 182, 226-227, 231 Research needs, 193, 197, 200-208 Residential exposures, 1, 5, 28-33, 36-40, 53, 108, 117-118, 126-127 , 156-158, 182-183, 287-301. See also Appliances, electric; Home wiring multi-family residences, 158 Residential mobility. See Mobility of residents Resonant effects, testing for, 45 Revertancy, 210-211, 213 Risk assessment, 1, 15-16, 191-199 stages of, 192-193 Risk characterization, 193, 197 rms. See Root mean square (rms) measurements Root mean square (rms) measurements, 5, 26, 340 Rotating fields, 89, 100 RR. See Relative risk (RR)

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields S Scaling species. See Interspecies scaling SCE. See Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) School exposures, 171, 204 Secondaries, distribution. See also Transmission and distribution lines open first-span, 164-165, 170 spun (wrapped), 170 Segments I/II/III tests, 77-78 Selection bias, 122, 146-155, 157, 185 use of friend controls, 153 Semipartite thoracic centra, 340 Sensitivity analysis, 154 Serotonin effects, 92, 95. See also Melatonin concentration effects Serum melatonin concentration effects. See Melatonin concentration effects Service drops. See Transmission and distribution lines SES. See Socioeconomic status (SES) Sheep, studies of, 253 Shielding, 27. See also Magnetic fields, shielding from electrostatic, 43 Shock currents, 9, 28, 41 Short-term tests, 78 SI. See Systeme International (SI) units Signal transduction pathways, changes in, 6, 52, 58-63. See also Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in bone, 108, 112-114 research needs, 207 Sinusoidal field exposure, 56-57, 74, 100, 248-253 Sinusoidal waveforms. See Alternating current (ac) Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), 56-57, 210, 212-216, 218-219, 340 Skeletal anomalies, 89 Skin tumors, 224 Smoking. See Marijuana smoking; Tobacco smoking Socioeconomic status (SES), 152, 157-159, 163, 187, 266-267, 269-270 , 272-274, 276, 284 Solenoidal coils, 44 Soma, defined, 340 Spatially-varying fields, 5, 25 Species, scaling of. See Interspecies scaling Spot measurements, 5, 39, 142-145, 169, 173, 201, 255-257, 267-268 , 270, 290, 292 Static fields. See Unchanging fields Sternebra, 340 Streaming potential, 341 Stress responses, 103-104, 338 Subchronic toxicity. See Toxicologic studies Substations, 32. See also Transmission and distribution lines Subways, 17 Suicide, 186-187 Surrogate assessment means, 341 Swine, studies of, 86-87, 235-236, 241 Switched equipment, 35, 201-202, 301. See also Transients Switchyard workers, 184 Systeme International (SI) units, 340 T T. See Tesla (T) Target organs, 76 Telephone workers, 181 Temporal changes in fields. See Time-varying fields Terata, 340 Teratogenicity, 78, 85-86 Tesla (T), 12-13, 23, 339-340 Testicular cancer, 177 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), 53-54, 61-62, 80, 115, 224, 341 inducing early-response genes, 53, 341 Thoracic vertebra, 338, 340 Three-phase transmission lines. See Transmission and distribution lines Thymic lymphocytes, 60, 72 Time-varying fields, 3-5, 13, 23, 25, 105, 110 Time-weighted average measurements. See Electromagnetic fields (EMF) Tissue culture studies. See In vitro studies Tissue healing, 13. See also Bone healing Tissue-air interface, 46

OCR for page 347
Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields Tobacco smoking, 123, 161, 163, 281 in pregnancy, 266, 269, 272, 274, 276 Toxicologic studies, 75-79 acute lethality, 76 chronic toxicity, 77 cocarcinogenicity, 78-79, 198, 207 copromotion studies, 78-79, 197 developmental studies, 77-78 repeated-dose studies, 76-77 reproductive studies, 77-78 subchronic toxicity, 77 TPA. See 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) Trailing edge, 24 Trains, intercity, 17, 35, 164. See also Subways Transcript activity, increased, 63 Transformers. See Transmission and distribution lines Transient changes (biologic), 55, 58-72, 240, 243 Transients (electric), 5, 24, 34-36, 39, 300-301, 341 research needs, 204 Transmission and distribution lines, 1, 3-5, 11-12, 16-17, 287-290 distance from, 5, 15-16, 32-33, 36-40, 117, 164, 255-257, 267, 270 , 276, 279, 282 safe, 28 three-phase, 32, 176, 287-288, 301 underground, 32-33, 158, 176 Transportation systems, 17, 34-35 Trenimon, 57, 341 Tumors initiation of, 81, 223 promotion of, 13, 54, 80-82, 106, 116, 224 24-hr measurements, 169, 173, 255-256, 267, 300 Tyrosine protein kinases, 62. See also lyn kinase; Protein kinase C (PKC) U Unchanging fields, 4, 13 Underground power lines. See Transmission and distribution lines U.S. Department of Energy, 1, 9 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 111 V V. See Volt (V) VDT. See Video display terminals (VDTs) Vector quantities, 22, 341 Very low frequency (VLF), 13, 18, 71-72, 182, 197, 341 Video display terminals (VDTs), 10, 181-182, 184 Vietnam Experience Study, 188 Viral exposure, 174 VLF. See Very low frequency (VLF) Volt (V), 341 per meter, 23 Vote counting, 136 unweighted, 142 W Waveforms rectangular, 24 saw-toothed, 88-89 sinusoidal. See Alternating current (ac) Wavelength, 11-12, 24 Weighted risk factors. See Risk assessment Wire codes, 3, 22, 36-40, 117-118, 127-176, 184, 195-198, 287-301, 255-257, 341 low-current configuration, 138, 142 and distance, 139, 142-143 refinements in, 170-171, 296 reliability issues ("wire-code paradox"), 37-38, 156, 165-170, 299 -300 research needs, 202-203, 205-206 Wiring. See Home wiring Wiring configuration, 24. See also Wire codes Workplace exposures. See Occupational exposures World War II, 10 X X-ray exposures, 123