Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
--> Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Volume 2 Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C., 1996
OCR for page R2
--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NAGW-2239. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-73151 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05478-8 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-718 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R3
--> Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations DONALD E. GARDNER (Chair), Consultant, Raleigh, N.C. JOSEPH V. BRADY, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. RICHARD J. BULL, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. MARY E. GAULDEN, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex. WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio ROGENE F. HENDERSON, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. E. MARSHALL JOHNSON, Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. RALPH L. KODELL, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Ark. ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. BERNARD M. WAGNER, Bernard M. Wagner Associates, Millburn, N.J. G. DONALD WHEDON, Consultant, Clearwater Beach, Fla. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Project Director MARGARET E. MCVEY, Project Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor SHARON L. HOLZMANN, Administrative Associate CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant LUCY V. Fusco, Project Assistant Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
OCR for page R4
--> Committee on Toxicology ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. DONALD E. GARDNER (Vice-Chair), Raleigh, N.C. DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. ELAINE M. FAUSTMAN, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Ark. WALDERICO M. GENEROSO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. IAN A. GREAVES, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. SIDNEY GREEN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Md. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. MICHELE A. MEDINSKY, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, Calif. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director MARVIN A. SCHNEIDERMAN, Senior Staff Scientist MARGARET E. MCVEY, Staff Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant
OCR for page R5
--> Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Miami University, Oxford, Ohio MICHAEL J. BEAN, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio PAUL BUSCH, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, N.Y. EDWIN H. CLARK, II, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Va. ALLAN H. CONNEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. GEORGE P. DASTON, Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio DIANA FRECKMAN, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. RAYMOND C. LOEHR, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, S.C. DAVID P. RALL, Washington, D.C. LESLIE A. REAL, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. KRISTIN SHRADER-FRECHETTE, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. GERALD VAN BELLE, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. TERRY F. YOSIE, E. Bruce Harrison Co., Washington, D.C.
OCR for page R6
--> Staff Program Directors of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering
OCR for page R7
--> Commission on Life Sciences THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. JOHN C. BAILAR III, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, Calif. GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. URSULA W. GOODENOUGH, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. SUSAN E. LEEMAN, Boston University, Boston, Mass. RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DONALD R. MATTISON, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. JOSEPH E. MURRAY, Wellesley Hills, Mass. EDWARD E. PENHOET, Chiron Corp., Emergyville, Calif. EMIL A. PFITZER, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Hackensack, N.J. MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. HENRY C. PITOT III, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. HAROLD M. SCHMECK, JR., North Chatham, Mass. CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwestern Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex. PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director
OCR for page R8
--> Other Recent Reports Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (Urinary Toxicology (1995), Immunotoxicology (1992), Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992), Pulmonary Toxicology (1989), Reproductive Toxicology (1989)) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three reports, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations (1993) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Tracking Toxic Substances at Industrial Facilities (1990)
OCR for page R9
--> Committee on Toxicology Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996) Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water (1995) Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water (1995) Review of the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute's Toxicology Program (1994) Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms (1994) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994) Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (1993) Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances (1993) Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (1992) Review of the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Toxicology Division (1991) Permissible Exposure Levels and Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants (1991) These reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press: (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313
OCR for page R10
This page in the original is blank.
OCR for page R11
--> PREFACE The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume.
OCR for page R12
--> In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. This report is the second volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994. The subcommittee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the following personnel from NASA and its contractors: Dr. John James, Dr. Martin Coleman, Dr. Lawrence Dietlein, Mr. Jay Perry, Mr. Kenneth Mitchell (all from NASA), Mr. James Hyde (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Dr. King Lit Wong (U.S Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office), Dr. Hector Garcia, Dr. Chiu Wing Lam (both from Krug International), and Mr. Donald Cameron (Boeing Company). The subcommittee is grateful to astronauts Drs. Shannon Lucid, Drew Gaffney, Mary Cleave, and Martin Fettman for sharing their experiences. The subcommittee also acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, and the Space Station Freedom Program Office, Reston, Virginia, for providing tours of their facilities. No effort of this kind can be accomplished without the hard work and dedication of Sharon Holzmann, Catherine Kubik, and Margaret McVey. Lucy Fusco was the project assistant. Ruth Crossgrove edited the report. The subcommittee particularly acknowledges Dr. Kulbir Bakshi, project director for the subcommittee, whose hard work and expertise were most effective in bringing the report to completion. DONALD E. GARDNER, CHAIR SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS ROGENE F. HENDERSON, CHAIR COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY
OCR for page R13
--> CONTENTS Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants 1 Introduction, 1 Summary of Report on Guidelines for Developing SMACS, 3 Review of SMAC Reports, 4 References, 5 Appendix A Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants: Executive Summary 7 Appendix B Reports on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants 17 B1 Acrolein, 19 B2 Benzene, 39 B3 Carbon Dioxide, 105 B4 2-Ethoxyethanol, 189 B5 Hydrazine, 213 B6 Indole, 235 B7 Mercury, 251 B8 Methylene Chloride, 277 B9 Methyl Ethyl Ketone, 307 B10 Nitromethane, 331 B11 2-Proponol, 351 B12 Toluene, 373
OCR for page R14
This page in the original is blank.