Click for next page ( 339


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 338

OCR for page 338
HARALD ULRIK SVERDRUP November I5, I888-August 2l, 1957 BY WILLIAM A. NIERENBERG ABlOG^PHY OF Harald UIrik Sverdrup written for con- sumption in his native Norway has a different perspec- tive than one written for the National Academy of Sciences. In the Uniter! States, Svercirup is recognizes! as the founder of the moclern school of physical oceanography. A great scientist en c! "father" of a school is recognizes! by the num- ber en c! fame of his students en c! colleagues. In Svercirup's case the list inclucles Robert S. Arthur, John Crowell, Dale Leipper, Richarc! Fleming, Walter Munk, en c! Roger Revelle. This clistinguishec! group former! the nucleus of the clevel- opment of the science of physical oceanography in the Uniter! States, which, before Svercirup, hac! been simply a punctu- atecI, part-time effort by a few inclivicluals. This lifetime achievement receiver! most unusual recognition by the nam- ing of an oceanographic term after this great scientist, the Svercirup, "a unit of volume transport equal to one million cubic meters per second.") The American Meteorological Society honored him with the Sverdrup Gold Medal, which recognizes researchers for outstanding contributions to the scientific knowlecige of interactions between the oceans en c! the atmosphere. A building bearing Svercirup's name is on the campus of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 339

OCR for page 338
340 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS This memoir is being written cluring the fiftieth anniver- sary of the publication of The Oceans, when ceremonies mark- ing this event are being prepared. Sverdrup was the princi- pal author along with colleagues Martin Johnson ant! Richarc! Fleming, en c! his chapter XV on the oceanic currents is still the most recent publication that treats all the worIcl's oceans in one work. This remarkable text not only market! the onset of moclern oceanography but also survives as a leacI- ing source tociay. In the fielc! of science this lon~evitv is almost unique. ~, In Norway, Svercirup is not only recognizec! as a great scientist but also as an arctic explorer en c! a member of an oic! en c! clistinguishec! family. The following is a personal history taken from Sverdrup's unpublished autobiography written for the National Academy of Sciences when he left the Uniter! States to return to Norway in 1948.2 In view of Svercirup's achievements in establishing a new science in the university, it is of historical value to portray his family en c! academic backgrounc! in more cletaiT than is customary in these Academy records in order to appraise their influ- ence on his clevelopment. HaraTc! Svercirup was born on November 15, ISSS, in Sogncial, Sogn, Norway. At the time, his father, {ohan Ecivarc! Svercirup ~866-]923) was teaching at the aclult school there. Svercirup's father, as were his four uncles, was a minister of the State Church of Norway (Lutheran), en c! in IS94 his father became minister in the islanc! district of SoluncI, about 40 miles north of Bergen. Then his father mover! to Rennso near Stavanger. In ~ 908 he became professor of church history in OsIo, where he cliec! in 1923. The first recorc! of a Svercirup appearec! in Norway in 1620, but Sverdrup can only trace his ancestry on his father's sicle to his great-great-grancifather, a large lane! owner in northern Norway. In ISIS one of his three sons, Georg

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 341 Svercirup, was one of the first professors of the University in OsIo in classical philosophy and languages. He partici- patec! in the Norwegian constitutional convention en c! was one of the three authors of the final document. The young- est of the three, Svercirup's great-grancifather, Jacob Liv Borch Svercirup ~ ~ 775-] 841 ), became an expert in lane! manage- ment en c! establishec! the first agricultural school in Nor- way. Two of his sons reacher! consiclerable prominence. {ohan Svercirup ~6-92), a lawyer, was a member of the Storting en c! became the leacler of the liberal party en c! succeeclec! in introducing the parliamentary system. The oIcler brother, Haralc! UIrik Svercirup (~13-91), Svercirup's grandfather, was also a churchman who servec! as a Lutheran minister in Sogncial, Svercirup's birthplace. He also servec! a long time in the Storting en c! was involves! in many enterprises, from fruit growing to banking to ship- ping. His mother, Maria VolIan, cliec! when her son was still a chiTcI. Her family was relater! to the Grieg family. His mater- nal grandmother was of Scotch crescent, en c! his maternal gran cifather hac! a religious education also but serve c! as the editor of a large newspaper and was the author of an important arithmetic textbook. As a result of his father's varier! career, Svercirup spent much of his boyhooc! in various sites in western Norway en c! was taught by governesses until he was fourteen years old, when he went to school in Stavanger. During Sverdrup's aclolescence, he experienced conflicts between his interest in natural science and his family's profession of theology. By his own account he was an avic! reacler of a Danish publi- cation, Frem, meaning "forward," that spanner! the entire gamut of the sciences. He had difficulty reconciling the concept of evolution with his religious upbringing. It clic! not occur to Svercirup at the time that one conic!

OCR for page 338
342 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS stucly science in the university whose subject matter to him was synonymous with theology. Thus, when he enterer! gym- nasium in 1903, he chose the classical curriculum insteac! of the science curriculum. But that gave him the opportu- nitv to react evervthin~ he conic! fins! on astronomy, his J O major interest at the time, en c! when he learner! that he conic! pursue the natural sciences in the university, his ca- reer path was cleterminecI. Much of Svercirup's scientific clevelopment was associates! with the military. After leaving the gymnasium with honors, he spent a year in OsIo preparing for en c! passing university preliminary examinations. He cleciclec! to combine his com- puisory military service at the Norwegian Academy of War with an enc! towarc! becoming a reserve officer en c! having the security of an income. He joiner! this training with the stucly of physics en c! mathematics en c! thus was able to re- turn to the university. He makes a special point in his mem- oirs that his year at the academy was not waster! because he neeclec! physical training. He was prouc! of the fact that he finisher! the perioc! servec! (1907-8) as the top man in ath- letics. It probably was essential to his survival en c! positive performance later cluring his Tong arctic orcleals. When he enterer! the university in 190S, Svercirup's in- tended major was astronomy. The precise title of the sub- ject at the university was "Physical Geography and Astronomy." He defines the content in more moclern terms as inclucling geophysics, meteorology, oceanography, and terrestrial mag- netism. His ultimate research interests were fixed in 1911 when he was offerer! an assistantship with Professor Vilhelm Bj erknes, the preeminent Norwegian meteorologist en c! founder of the Bergen School.3 Theirs was not the usual relationship of mentor to student. Bjerknes's assistants were the brightest young scientists of their generation. They in- cluded Jacob Bjerknes, Tor Bergeron, Olaf Devik, Theodore

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 343 Hesselberg, CarI-Gustaf Rossby, en c! Halvor SoTberg. Bjerknes expecter! them all to make substantial intellectual contribu- tions to the work. Svercirup later recallec! that Bjerknes's4 . . . own work centered completely around the further development of the theoretical tools. He has to my knowledge never attempted to draw a weather map, nor has he ever discussed actual meteorological observations. In the course of the years many of his assistants worked with the data, they tried to interpret the observed conditions, and, step by step, to gain better un- derstanding of the physical processes in the atmosphere or the ocean. Bjerknes gave them complete freedom in their work. He was no hard task- master, but he laid the course. The Bergen School was supporter! by an annual grant that Bj erknes receiver! from the Carnegie Institution of Washington almost from the first clays of its establishment after his visit to Washington in 1905. Bjerknes receiver! this grant continuously to the enc! of his career. Svercirup notes the vital role that the Carnegie Institution playact in clevel- oping the earth sciences in those early years, en c! Svercirup himself receiver! sunnort from the institution throughout his career. 1 1 to Svercirup initially expecter! to continue research in as- tronomy, but he became more en c! more interested in me- teorology en c! oceanography en c! so changer! his major. His first publisher! paper (in 1914) was for his cancliciacy en c! was in meteorology. When, in 1912, Bjerknes went to the University of Leipzig as professor en c! director of the new Geophysical Institute, Sverdrup accompanied him and spent January 1913 to August 1917 in Germany. These were war years, en c! Svercirup sufferer! from wartime shortages. He clic! his thesis for the University of OsIo while there en c! receiver! his doctorate in June 1917 on a publisher! paper on the North Atian tic tradewinds. It seems that Svercirup conic! not avoic! his clestiny in the Arctic. In 1913 Roalc! Amuncisen resumes! his plan for a

OCR for page 338
344 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS north polar expedition to the Arctic on R/V Maud. Svercirup turner! clown an invitation as an assistant to the chief scien- tist because he wisher! to complete his university work. In 1917 the opportunity resurfacec! with the position elevates! to that of chief scientist en c! he accepted. Svercirup's expe- riences in the Arctic former! his character both as a man en c! a scientist.5 He regales! his students throughout his later life with tales of the hardships of the Arctic en c! once remarkocI, "These years were really very valuable because they brought me in the closest possible contact with nature, a circumstance which to one who works in geophysics can- not be overestimatecI."6 . The expedition left Norway on July 18, 1918, with a pro- ~ectec! duration of three to four years. Instead, it laster! seven en c! one-half years, including an interruption of ten months in 1921-22 spent in the Uniter! States. Svercirup clic! not return to Norway until December 22, 1925. In his own worcis, he woulc! not have misses! the experience of any one of those years. He caller! the most interesting perioc! the eight months of 1919-20 that he spent in Siberia living with nomadic reindeer herclers, the Chukchi. This was at the suggestion of Amuncisen cluring a perioc! when the vessel was ice bouncI. It is not easy to unclerstanc! his statement, for although Svercirup gave several lectures en c! talks on the Chukchi, he never publisher! these. Svercirup left a hancI- written monograph on the Chukchi that was translates! en c! published some thirty years after his death by his colleagues at Scripps as a tribute to Sverdrup,7 although by then a larger en c! more authoritative ethnographic study of the people had already been published. Svercirup felt that the long years in the Arctic en c! the heavy responsibilities of his work as chief scientist were jus- tified by the firsthand experience he gained in field re- search en c! ciata taking, but seven years away from home

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 345 wouic! seem to have overdone it. His arctic work also al- lowoc! him to visit the Carnegie Institution of Washington for the first time in the winter of 1921-22, his first trip to the Uniter! States en c! a very valuable scientific contact. A more specific justification that Svercirup gave in sup- port of his concentration on the Arctic was the easier in- sight it affords in our unclerstancling of the basic physical oceanography of currents. He argucc! that the effect of the earth's rotation, a funciamental aspect of the dynamics of the oceans, is best en c! most simply observer! in the polar regions, where it is greatest. He recountec! how Nansen empirically recognized the possibility of the rotation of the current vector as a function of depth en c! suggester! to Bjerknes that it shouIc! be examiner! more formally. Bjerknes assignee! the problem to a young mathematical physicist, V. Walfric! Ekman, who solver! it en c! thereby his name was given to the phenomenon known as the Ekman Spiral. It has never been clear why so much fuss is macle over this formula. It is the direct analogy to the Coq effect (skin effect) in the electromagnetics of a resistive conclucting medium. This murkiness may be relater! to the curious fact that the effect of the earth's rotation is caller! the geo- strophic force by the earth scientists where all the rest of physics call it after its eluciciator, Coriolis. Svercirup hac! well establisher! his scientific reputation and in 1926 was offered the chair of meteorology at Bergen, which hac! been vacates! by Bjerknes, who hac! returnee! to Osio. There he worker! on the ciata collectec! on the Maud expedition en c! eclitec! the scientific report of the expecli- tion. He later estimates! that he personally contributes! two- thircis of the report. Before assuming this post, however he spent ten months at the Carnegie Institution in Washing- ton working on the electric and magnetic records of the same expedition. There he met and made a favorable im

OCR for page 338
346 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS pression on a number of American scientists en c! was twice offerer! en c! refuses! permanent positions. He visitor! sev- eral American laboratories, inclucling a brief visit to the Scripps Institution. It is interesting to note parenthetically that if Svercirup hac! acceptec! a Carnegie position he wouIc! almost certainly have become the first director of the Woocis Hole Oceanographic Institution, organizer! in 1930.8 If this hac! occurred, the institutional history of U.S. oceanogra- phy wouIc! have been vastly different. Shortly after his return to Norway, Svercirup marries! Gucirun Bronn VaumuncI. They hac! no chilciren, but he acloptec! Anna Margrethe, the daughter of Gucirun's first marriage. In 1930 Svercirup spent another six months at the De- partment of Terrestrial Magnetism, working on oceanographic ciata collectec! by the R/V Carnegie for whose cruise he hac! earlier servec! as a consultant. Not long after his return from the United States in 1931 he accepted a research pro- fessorship in the newly establishec! Christian Michelsens In- stitute carrying on pretty much the same work on the Maud ciata. In 1931 he was the leacler of the scientific group in the Wilkins-Elisworth North Polar Submarine Expedition, where valuable information was gathered despite the fail- ure to achieve the chief goal of the expedition, the subma- rine exploration of the Arctic in the Nautitus. In 1934 he spent two months studying boundary layer processes over high-lying snow fielcis in Spitsbergen with glaciologist H. W. Ahiman. But it was in December 1935 that the great change oc- currec! in Svercirup's life when the director of his institute, Bjorn HellancI-Hansen, just returnee! from the Uniter! States, informed Sverdrup that his name had come up as a pos- sible replacement for Thomas Waylanc! Vaughan, retiring director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 347 Jolla en c! part of the University of California system.9 Svercirup agreed, if he conic! be given a three-year leave of absence, en c! he acceptec! the invitation that was soon tenclerecI. Scripps was positioner! to be an important center of oceanographic research, but it bacIly neeclec! increasec! resources en c! rig- orous scientific leaclership. Svercirup knew, perhaps more than anyone else in the woricI, about the emerging sciences of oceanography, meteorology, en c! geophysics, but he neeclec! a position with the scope to expanc! the sciences. As an aside, it is interesting to note that Svercirup was prececlec! in his immigration to the Uniter! States by his brother, Leif, who hac! been sent abroac! for career pur- poses. Lief also macle a great success of his life. He became an American citizen, a civil engineer, en c! cofounder of the firm of Svercirup en c! Parcel in St. Louis, one of the largest en c! most important American engineering companies. Dur- ing the seconc! worIc! war, he servec! as chief engineer to Douglas MacArthur en c! rose to the rank of general in the U.S. Armec! Forces. The choice of Svercirup as director of the Scripps Institu- tion of Oceanography in 1936 was one of the most felici- tous decisions macle by the University of California en c! was an action that enhancer! the university, the Scripps Institu- tion, en c! the science en c! teaching of oceanography. No one conic! possibly have foreseen the immense consequences except, perhaps, Robert Gordon Sproul, the long-time presi- clent of the University of California. Sproul worker! steaclily with Svercirup to improve the institution, which hac! been neglectec! by former university presidents. In fact, the Scripps Institution had almost lost the support of the Scripps family by neglecting them. When Scripps's major benefactor, Ellen Browning Scripps, was on her deathbed, she expressed her unhappiness with the fact the university regents had never visitor! the institution. When Sprout learner! of her unhap

OCR for page 338
348 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS piness, he came to La Jolla en c! caller! on her at her home to reaffirm his strong interest. Sproul was a great university president. When he iclenti- fiec! exceptional talent, he went all out to support it en c! macle every effort to personally see that the incliviclual was supplier! with whatever he or she neeclec! to clo the job en c! to create an environment that wouic! keep the incliviclual at the university. This was certainly how he helpec! Ernest Lawrence, among many others, achieve his goals by bypass- ing the university bureaucracy en c! communicating clirectly with Lawrence in his early years at the university. Sproul's sponsorship was all the more remarkable in the case of Svercirup, who heaclec! what then was an irregular outpost of the university. Scripps was, in 1936, a small rather remote en c! crusty marine station with one research vessel capable of only coastal cruises en c! a staff of about thirty people, including eight faculty members. It had an annual operating budget of about $89,000 derived largely from con- tributions made by the Scripps family and matched by the state of California. It hac! potential in the form of an en- clowment proviclec! by Ellen Browning Scripps, a spectacu- lar campus, en c! a promising staff, inclucling some interest- ing students. One of these was Roger Revelle, about whom more later, who receiver! his training at the Scripps Institu- tion en c! his doctorate from the University of California in Berkeley, which was the degree-granting campus for Scripps. Despite the remoteness en c! the relative insignificance of the Scripps Institution in the university system, Sprout was in constant communication with Svercirup en c! particularly helpful in what was Sverdrup's perpetual headache, the op- eration and maintenance of a research vessel. Svercirup remainec! as heat! of the institution from Sep- tember 1936 for almost twelve years before returning to Norway to heat! the Norwegian Polar Institute. Svercirup

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 365 Fridtj of Nansen som videnskapsmann. Nor. Geogr. Tidsskr. 3: 306-13. Dirunal variation of temperature at polar stations in the spring. Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 32: 1-14. Die Meteorologischen Untersuchungen und Ergebnisse der "Maud"- Expedition. Petermanns Mitteilungen, Erganzungsheft 191, Internationale Studiengesellschaft zur Erforschung der Arkis mit dem Luftschiff (Aeroarctic). 0 1 The Deep-Water of the Pacific According to the Observations of the Carnegie. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Report to Section of Oceanography, In- ternational Geodetic and Geophysical Union, Stockholm, 87-93. The origin of the deep-water of the Pacific Ocean as indicated by the oceanographic work of the Carnegie. Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 29:95-105. Resultater av Maudferdens Oseanografiske unders0kelser. Naturen. Scientific results of the Andree expedition. I. Drift-ice and ice-drift. Geogr. Ann. 2/3:121-40. Snedekkets termiske egenskaper. Chr. Michelsens Institutt for Videnskaps og Andsirihet, vol. 1. Das Tier- und Vogelleben im Treibeis. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 1/2: 3-20. Die Wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten auf der Wilkins-Ellsworth-Expedi- tion 1931. Arktis 3/4:49-50. Hvorledes og Hvorfor Med "Nautilus. " Oslo: Gyldendal. 1932 r~ Als Meeresforscher mit dem Unterseeboot "Nautilus" im Nordo- polargebiet. Das MeerPolarbuch 1:1-22. Arbeider i luft- og havforskning. Chr. Michelsens Institutt for Videnskaps o og Andsirihet, vol. 2. Warmehaushalt und AustauschgroBe auf Grund der Beobachtungen der "Maud"-Expedition. Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (Bjerknes-Festschrift) 19:276-90. 1933 General Report of the Expedition. Norwegian North Polar Expedition with the "Maud " 1918-1925, Scientific Results, vol. 1. Bergen: Geofysisk Institutt.

OCR for page 338
366 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS Pendulum observations near Cape Chelyuskin. Norwegian North Po- lar Expedition with the "Maud " 1918-1925, Scientific Results, vol. 2. Meteorology, Part I, Discussion. Norwegian North Polar Expedition with the "Maud " 1 91 8-1 925, Scientific Results, vol. 2. Bergen: Geofysisk Institutt. Geofysiske unders0kelser, saerlig over vindens betydning for Havstr0mmene. Chr. Michelsens Institutt for Videnskaps og Andsfrihet, vol. 3. Narrative and oceanography of the Nautilus expedition, 1931. Pa- pers in Physical Oceanography and Meteorology, vol. 2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- tion. Naturvidenskap og Religion. Fritt Ord 3:107-11. On vertical circulation in the ocean due to the action of the wind with application to conditions within the Antarctic circumpolar current. Discovery Reports 7:139-70. Vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Berechnung der Druck- und Massenverteilung im Meere. Chr. Michelsens Institutt. Geofys. Publ. 10:3-9. 1934 The circulation of the Pacific. In Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific Science Congress, Canada, pp. 2141-45. Oversikt over "Maud"-ekspedisjonens videnskapelige Resultater. Chr. Michelsens Insstitutt for Videnskap og Andsfrihet, vol. 4. Air circulation over the Polar Sea. Arctica 2:47-63. Bj0rn Helland-Hansen, 1877. Nor. Biogr. Leksikon 6:10-13. Videnskapens Bakgrunn. Studentersamfunded i Trondhjem. Smaskrifter, vol 2. Wie en tsteht die An tarktische Konvergenz ? Ann. Hydrogr. Marit. Met. 315-17. 1935 The temperature of the firn on Isachsen's plateau, and general conclusions regarding the temperature of the glaciers on West- Spitsbergen. In Scientific Results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen Expedition in 1934, Part III. Geografiska Annaler 1/2:53-88. The ablation of Isachsen's plateau, and on the fourteenth of July glacier in relation to radiation and meteorological conditions. In

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 367 Scientific Results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen Expedition in 1934, Part IV. Geografiska Annaler 3/4:145-66. Temperaturen i Vest-Spitsbergens breer. Naturen 7/8: 239-48. .. Ubersicht uber das Klima des Polarmeeres und des Kanadischen Archipels. Handbuch der Klimatologie herausgegeben von Koppen und Geiger, vol. 2. Varmoutvokslingen mellem en snaflate og luften. Chr. Michelsens Institutt for Videnskap og Andsirihet, vol. 5. Zum Warmehaushalt der Gletscher auf West-Spitzbergen. Meteorol. Z. 12:495. Polar-humor. Polar-Arboken 5-14. o 1936 Austausch und Stabilitat in der untersten Luftschicht. Meteorol. Z. 1:10-15. The eddy conductivity of the air over a smooth snow field. Results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen expedition in 1934. Geofys. Publ. 11. Das Maritime Verdunstungsproblem. Ann. Hydrogr. Marit. Meteorol. 41-47. Results of the Meteorological Observations on Isachsen's Plateau. Scientific Results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen expedi- tion in 1934. Geograf Ann. 1/2:34-47. Turbulensforskning i Laboratoriet og i Naturen. Chr. Michelsens Institutt for Videnskap og Andsirihet, vol. 6. Bezichungen Zwischen den Anderungen der Gletscher auf Spitzbergen und Kleineren Klimatischen Anderungen. Publ. Chr. Michelsens Inst. 6:31. 1937 Oceanographic research at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1936 to April 1937. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 210- 16. On the evaporation from the oceans. 7. Mar. Res. 1:3-14. With D. L. Fax and T. Cunningham. Rate of water propulsion by the California mussel. Biol. Bull. 72:417-38. The work at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Collecting Net 12:57-61.

OCR for page 338
368 B I O G RA P H I C A L 1938 EMOIRS Notes on erosion by drifting snow and transport of solid material by sea ice. Am. I. Sci. 35:370-73. On the explanation of the oxygen minima and maxima in the oceans. Journal du Conseil International pour ['Exploration de la Mer 13:163- 72. On the process of upwelling. 7. Mar. Res. 1:155-64. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1937 to April 1938. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 238-42. Oceanographic problems off the coast of California. Trans Am. Geophys. Union, Papers, Joint Meeting, Meteorology and Oceanography, pp. 173-74. Hos Tundra-Folket. Oslo: Gyldendal. 1939 Ocean circulation. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Applied Mechanics, pp. 279-93. On the influence of stability and instability on the wind profile and the eddy conductivity near the ground. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Applied Mechanics, pp. 369-72. Physics and Geophysics: With Special Reference to Problems in Physical Oceanography. Berkeley: University of California Press. Second note on the logarithmic law of wind structure near the ground. R. Meteorol. Soc. Q. I. 65:57-60. Response of the medalist. Science 90:24-27. Cruises of the E. W. Scripps in 1939. Sci. Mon. 49:389-91. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1938 to April 1939. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 422-27. With W. E. Allen. Distribution of diatoms in relation to the charac- ter of water masses and currents off southern California in 1938. J. Mar. Res. 2:131-44. Lateral mixing in the deep water of the South Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Res. 2:195-207. 1940 Part 2, Hydrology, Discussion. In British Australian New Zealand Ant

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 369 arctic Research Expedition, 1929-1931, vol. 3 (Oceanography), pp. 88-126. Adelaide: B.A.N.Z.A.R. Expedition Committee. The currents of the Pacific Ocean and their bearing on the climates of the coasts. Science 91 :273-82. General remarks on turbulence in the atmosphere and the ocean. Association Oce'anographique Physique, Proce's-Verbaux 3. The Gulf of California. Association Oce'anographique Physique, Proce's- Verbaux 3. Do permanent deep-sea currents exist? Association Oce'anographique Physique, Proce's-Verbaux 3:182-83. The Arctic regions. Association Oce'anographique Physique, Publ. Scientifique 8:50-53. On the annual and diurnal variation of the evaporation from the oceans. 7. Mar. Res. 3:93-104. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1939 to April 1940. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 343-46. The unity of the sciences at sea. Sigma Xi Q. 28:105-15. Trail blazing in the Pacific. Calif Mon. 45:10. The Gulf of California: preliminary discussion of the cruise of the "E. W. SCRIPPS" in February and March 1939. In Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress, vol. 3, pp. 161-66. Activities of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Tolla, Cali- fornia. In Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress, vol. 3, pp. 114-23. 1941 Water masses and currents of the North Pacific Ocean. Science 93:436. The influence of bottom topography on ocean currents. In Applied Mechanics, Theodore von Karman Anniversary Volume, pp. 66-75. Pasadena: California Institute of Technology. The Pacific Ocean. Science 94:287-93. An analysis of the ocean currents off the American west coast be- tween 40N and 40S. In Proceedings of the Dedicatory Exercises of Hancock Hall, University of Southern California Chronicle, pp. 17-20. With R. Fleming. The waters off the coast of southern California, March to July, 1937. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 4~4~:261-378. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at

OCR for page 338
370 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1940 to April 1941. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 490-94. 1942 Oceanographic observations on the E. W. SCRIPPS cruises of 1938. In Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Records of Observations, vol. 1. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1941 to April 1942. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 2:323-25. Oceanography for Meteorologists. New York: Prentice-Hall. With M. W. Johnson and R. H. Fleming. The Oceans: Their Physics, Chemistry and General Biology. New York: Prentice-Hall. 1943 Oceanographic observations of the Scripps Institution in 1939. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Records of Observations 1:64-159. On the ratio between heat conduction from the sea surface and heat used for evaporation. Ann. N.Y. A cad. Sci. 44:81-88. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1942 to April 1943. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 244-46. 1944 Oceanographic observations on the "E. W. SCRIPPS" cruises of 1940. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Records of Observations 1:161 ~1 in' 248. The California Current. In Science in the University, pp. 97-111. Ber- keley: University of California Press. With F. M. Soule et al. Observations and Results in Physical Oceanogra- phy. Scientific Results of Cruise VII of the CARNEGIE During 1928- 1929, Oceanography. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 1945 Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1943 to April 1944. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 605. Oceanography. In Handbook of Meteorology, pp. 1032-56. New York: McGraw-Hill.

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 371 Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1944 to April 1945. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 26:127-28. 1946 The humidity gradient over the sea surface. 7. Meteorol. 3:1-8. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1945 to April 1946. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 27:571-73. With W. Munk. Empirical and theoretical relations between wind, sea and swell. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 27:823-27. With W. Munk. Theoretical and empirical relations in forecasting breakers and surf. Trans Am. Geophys. Union 27:828-36. 1947 With W. Munk. Wind, Sea and Swell: Theory of Relations for Forecasting. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Hydrographic Office. New international aspects of oceanography. Trans Am. Philos. Soc. 91 :75-78. Note of the correction of reversing thermometers. 7. Mar. Res. 6:136- 38. Period increase of ocean swell. Trans Am. Geophys. Union 28:407-17. Wind-driven currents in a baroclinic ocean; with application to the equatorial currents of the eastern Pacific. Proc. Natl. A cad. Sci. U.S.A. 33:318-36. Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April 1946 to April 1947. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 28:801-2. With R. H. Fleming. Atlantic Ocean. Encyclopaedia Britannica. With R. H. Fleming. Indian Ocean. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Southern Ocean. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Oceanographic observations on the E. W. Scripps cruises of 1941. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Records of Observations 1:249- 408. Wind, sea and swell. In Proceedings of the Royal Canadian Institute, ser. 3A, vol. 12, session 1946-1947. 1948 With R. H. Fleming. Oceano Atlantico. Boll Geogr. 6:1066.

OCR for page 338
372 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS Om Vekslingene i det Californiske Sardinfiske. Naturen 72:264-67. Den Norsk-Britisk-Svenske Ekspedisjon til Antarkis 1949-1952. Nor. Hvalfangst-Tidende 37:39-41. 1949 With M. W. Tohnson and R. H. Fleming. Ocean and oceanography. Encyclopaedia Britannica. With R. H. Fleming. Pacific Ocean. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Polarforskning. Forges Stilling Idag. Arsskrift. Det Gr0nlandske Selskab 53-56. The wind and the sea: presidential address. Association d'oce'anographie Physique, Proce's-Verbaux 4:37-55. Theoretical tools in geophysics. Geogr. Ann. 31:365-68. Vind, Sj0 og D0nning. Norsk Nautisk Almanakk og Sj0fartskalender 1950, 217-20. Krigs- og Forsvarsforskning i De Forente Stater. Nor. Milituert Tidsskr. 108:321-37. 1950 Physical oceanography of the North Polar Sea. 7. Arctic Inst. N. Am. 3:178-86. Golfstr0mmen. Norsk Nautisk Almanakk og Sj0fartskalender 1951, 235- 39. Norsk Arktisk Forskning. Svalbardposten 23. Oseanografiske Observasjoner som Antyder en Klimacndring. Beretning fra Utvalget for Vaer- og Klimavariasjoner 1948 og 1949. Utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, pp. 35-36. The Norwegian-British-Swedish Scientific Expedition to Antarctica, 1949-1952. Nor. Polar-Tidende 36-44. 1951 Die Norwegisch-Britisch-Schwedische Expedition in die Ankarktis. Polarforschung 3:70-71. Evaporation from the oceans. In American Meteorological Society Com- pend ium of Meteorology, pp . 1071 -81. With M. W. Tohnson and R. H. Fleming. Ocean and oceanography. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vilhelm Bjerknes in memoriam. Tellus 3:217-21.

OCR for page 338
HARALD U LRI K SVE RD RU P 373 Vilhelm Bjerknes. 14 Mars 1862-8 April 1951. Nor. Geogr. Tidsskr. 13:1-7. Lincoln Ellsworth. Nor. Geogr. Tidsskr. 13:8-9. With M. S. "Norse!" to Dronning Maud Land. Nor. Polartidende. 1952 Forslag til ny Studicordning ved Det Matematisk-Naturvitenskapelige Fakultet. Den Hogre Skolen 2:35-39. Havets Beitemarker. Skrifter Utgjevne av Vest-landske Bondestemna No. 36, Kystvakt 7:7-9. Meteorologiske Observasjoner pa Norske Hvalkokerier. Nor. Hvalfangsttidende 41:70-73. Str0msystemet i det Nordlige Stillehav. Norsk Nautisk Almanakk og Sj0fartskalender 1953, 337-39. Havlaere (Fagb0ker for FiskereJ. Naturvidenskapens verdier. Teknisk Ukeblad 29. Circulation and tidal currents underneath the shelf-ice, Queen Maud Land. Association d 'oce'anographie Physique, Proce's-Verbaux 5: 157. Some remarks on the place of hydrography in fisheries research. Rapports et proces-verbaux des reunions. Cons Perm Intern l'explor mer 131:7. The three-nation arctic expedition of 1949-1952. Am. Scand. Rev. 40:205-12. 1953 On conditions for the vernal blooming of phytoplankton. 7. Cons. 18:287-95. The currents off the coast of Queen Maud Land. Nor. Geogr. Tidsskr. 14:239-49. Some problems in arctic meteorology. Proceedings of the Toronto Me- teorological Conference, pp. 69-73. 1954 Oceanography: the earth as a planet. In The Solar System, vol. 2, pp. 215-57. Tidal currents off the antarctic ice barrier, Queen Maud Land. Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. 7:385-90. Polhavet. Norsk Nautisk Almanakk og Sj0fartskalender 337-42.

OCR for page 338
374 B I O G RA P H I C A L 1955 EMOIRS The existence of a submarine ridge crossing the Polar Sea, pre- dicted by }. E. Fjeldstad in 1936. Nor. Geogr. Tidsskr. 15:76-77. The place of physical oceanography in oceanographic research. 7. Mar. Res. 14:287-94. With G. E. Deacon, H. Stommel, and C. W. Thorntwaite. Discussion on the relationship between meteorology and oceanography. 7. Mar. Res. 14:499-515. Roald Amundsen. In One Hundred Norwegians, pp. 156-60. Oslo: Johan Grundt Tanum Forlag. 1956 Roald Amundsen. In They Were from Norway: Portraits of Ten Men Who Made History, pp. 86-100. Oslo. Transport of Heat by the Currents of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean. Frstskrift Ill professor Bjorn Helland-Hansen. Benger, pp. 226-36. Norway's aid to India. Am. Scand. Rev. 44:19-26. Arctic sea ice. In The Dynamic North, Book 1 Oceanography of the Arctic. In The Dynamic North, Book 1. Rekkevidden av de eksakte naturvitenskaper. Fra Universitetets Talerstol. Report on the Photogrammetrical Work Carried Out by Norsk Polarinstitutt 1938-1955. Photogrammetry in Norway, pp. 7-10. . 1957 Oceanography. Hand b. Phys. 48: 608-70. Fridtjof Nansen. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Tatigkeit des Norwegischen Polarinstituts. Petersmanns Geographische Mitteilungen 101: 114. Dictionary of Physics. London: Pergamon Press. Finn Malmgren. Polarboken 85-90. The stress of the wind on the ice of the Polar Sea. Skriften Norsk Polarinstitutt 111. Introductory speech. Polar Atmosphere Symposium, Part II, Iono . ,~ . . ... sp" ~er~c ~echon, pp. x~-x~. Verden er full av Muligheter. Arbeiderbladet.

OCR for page 338