TABLE 4-1 Effects of Contraceptives on STDs and Pregnancy

 

STDs

 

 

Contraceptive Method

Bacterial

Viral (including HIV/AIDS)

Pregnancy

Condoms

Protective (if used for STD/HIV prophylaxis)

Protective (if used for STD/HIV prophylaxis)

Protective

Sterilization

Not protective (except against salpingitis)

Not protective

Highly protective

Spermicides with nonoxynol-9

Protective against cervical gonorrhea and chlamydial infection; associated with increased risk of urinary tract infections and altered vaginal floraa

No proven protection in vivo

Protective

Diaphragms

Protective against cervical infection; associated with increased risk of altered vaginal florab

Insufficient data

Protective

Oral contraceptives

Associated with increased cervical chlamydial infection; protective against symptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease

Not protective; some studies suggest increased risk for acquisition of HIV;c others show no effectd

Highly protective

Implantable/injectable contraceptives

Not protective

Not protective; some studies suggest increase risk for acquisition of HIV infectiond,e

Highly protective

IUDs

Associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in first month after insertion

Not protective

Protective

Rhythm method

Not protective

Not protective

Protective



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