Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatitis B virus

Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Human immunodeficiency virus, types 1 and 2

Genital ulceration

Herpes simplex virus, T. palladium, Haemophilus ducreyi, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, C. trachomatis (LGV strains)

Acute arthritis with urogenital or intestinal infection

N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp

Genital warts

Human papillomavirus

Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum virus

Ectoparasite infestations

Sarcoptes scabiei, Phthirus pubis

Heterophil-negative mononucleosis

Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (some evidence for sexual transmission)

Tropical spastic paraparesis

Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type I


TORCHES syndromea

Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, T. pallidum


C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae


C. trachomatis, U. urealyticum (?)

Otitis media

C. trachomatis

Sepsis, meningitis

Group B streptococcus

Cognitive impairment, deafness

Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, T. pallidum

NOTE: For each of the above syndromes, some cases cannot yet be ascribed to any cause and must currently be considered idiopathic. An ''?" indicates a possible associated syndrome.

a TORCHES is an acronym for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, and syphilis. The syndrome consists of various combinations of encephalitis, hepatitis, dermatitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

SOURCES: Cates W Jr., Holmes KK. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Last JM, Wallace RB, eds. Maxcy-Rosenau-Last public health and preventive medicine. 13th ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1992:99-114; 121-3. Holmes KK, Handsfield HH. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Isselbacher KJ, Braunwald E, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, eds. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 13th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994:534-43.

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