NOTE: The recommendations of the task force regarding the screening of pregnant women and newborns for HIV differ from those of the U.S. Public Health Service and some professional medical organizations. As examples, the U.S. Public Health Service recommends voluntary HIV testing for all pregnant women (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Public Health Service recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus counseling and voluntary testing for pregnant women, MMWR 1995;44(No. RR-7). The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends routine screening with consent of all pregnant women and HIV testing for infants whose mother's serostatus is unknown (American Academy of Pediatrics, Provisional Committee on Pediatric AIDS, Pediatr 1995;95:303-6). Determination of the appropriateness of these recommendations is beyond the charge of this committee. The following footnotes are direct quotations from the primary source.
a The letter ''A" indicates that there is good evidence to support the recommendation that the condition be specifically considered in a period health examination. "B" indicates that there is fair evidence to support the recommendation that the condition be specifically considered in a period health examination.
b Infants born to high-risk mothers whose HIV status is unknown. Women at high risk include past or present injection drug users; persons who exchange sex for money or drugs and their sex partners; injection drug using, bisexual, or HIV-positive sex partners currently or in past; persons seeking treatment for STDs; blood transfusion during 1978-1985.
c Persons who exchange sex for money or drugs, and their sex partners; persons with other STDs (including HIV); and sexual contacts of persons with active syphilis. Clinicians should also consider local epidemiology.