a "case load" of individual schools and thus are able to have consistent interactions with teachers and students at those schools. Male adolescents also come to the clinic for counseling and condoms, but other reproductive health services for them are handled through referrals. In addition, STD education, screening, and treatment are available in the family planning clinic. While STD prevention is not the focus of the Teen Services Program, it has been integrated into education and clinical services.

Results of evaluations of the school education component of the program indicate that teens who have participated in the program are five times more likely to postpone sexual activity in the eighth grade, and the rate of initiation of sexual intercourse is reduced by a third through the ninth grade (Howard and McCabe, 1990). In the service/clinical program, 80 percent of young mothers remain pregnancy-free during their teenage years. The program has recently begun a comprehensive message, "Free to Be," which means drug-free, HIV-free, and pregnancy-free. The program is based on the notion that the same skills are needed to avoid drugs, drinking while driving, sexual involvement, and unprotected sexual intercourse.


Howard M, McCabe JB. Helping teenagers postpone sexual involvement. Fam Plann Perspect 1990;22:21-6.

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