Index

A

Actuarial information, 285

Adolescents

   abuse reporting requirements, 296

   health care services, 234, 308

   juvenile delinquency, 13, 108, 264, 269-270

   placement services, 106, 107

Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System, 84

Adult protective services

   domestic violence, see Shelters

   elder abuse, 2, 38, 115-116, 184, 232

   risk severity, 285

   see also Protective orders

Advocacy programs, 2, 15, 16-17, 65, 66, 206, 264, 277

   child maltreatment, 2, 160, 164, 171, 233-234, 262, 265, 266

   child witnesses, 164, 170

   domestic violence, 113-114, 120, 152-153, 182-183, 224, 228, 229, 231, 233-234

   elder abuse, 117, 156, 184

Age factors

   child maltreatment, 41, 49, 106, 107, 108, 168, 169, 170

   child placement services, 106, 107, 108

   child witnessing, 169, 170

   domestic violence, 41-42

   perpetrators, 41-42

   prevention efforts, 207, 208-209

Alcohol and drug abuse, 270-271, 278, 309, 313

   child maltreatment, 95, 126, 276, 302

   placement services, 107, 108

   domestic violence, 46, 47, 182, 230-231, 268-269

   elder abuse, 47

Arrest procedures, 30

   definitional issues, 177

   domestic violence, 159, 172, 174-178, 183, 188-189, 194-197, 280, 281, 300-301

   elder abuse, 184, 187

B

Battered women, see Domestic violence

Batterer treatment, see Offender-oriented interventions

Best practice models, 17

Birth-related risk factors, 48, 314

Black persons, 44



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--> Index A Actuarial information, 285 Adolescents    abuse reporting requirements, 296    health care services, 234, 308    juvenile delinquency, 13, 108, 264, 269-270    placement services, 106, 107 Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System, 84 Adult protective services    domestic violence, see Shelters    elder abuse, 2, 38, 115-116, 184, 232    risk severity, 285    see also Protective orders Advocacy programs, 2, 15, 16-17, 65, 66, 206, 264, 277    child maltreatment, 2, 160, 164, 171, 233-234, 262, 265, 266    child witnesses, 164, 170    domestic violence, 113-114, 120, 152-153, 182-183, 224, 228, 229, 231, 233-234    elder abuse, 117, 156, 184 Age factors    child maltreatment, 41, 49, 106, 107, 108, 168, 169, 170    child placement services, 106, 107, 108    child witnessing, 169, 170    domestic violence, 41-42    perpetrators, 41-42    prevention efforts, 207, 208-209 Alcohol and drug abuse, 270-271, 278, 309, 313    child maltreatment, 95, 126, 276, 302    placement services, 107, 108    domestic violence, 46, 47, 182, 230-231, 268-269    elder abuse, 47 Arrest procedures, 30    definitional issues, 177    domestic violence, 159, 172, 174-178, 183, 188-189, 194-197, 280, 281, 300-301    elder abuse, 184, 187 B Battered women, see Domestic violence Batterer treatment, see Offender-oriented interventions Best practice models, 17 Birth-related risk factors, 48, 314 Black persons, 44

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--> C Canada, treatment/enforcement costs, 2 Child Abuse Potential Inventory, 99 Child deaths, 13, 278    fatality review teams, 265-266, 311    gender factors, 42 Child maltreatment, 2, 12, 66    advocacy programs, 2, 160, 164, 171, 233-234, 262, 265, 266    age factors, 41, 49, 106, 107, 108, 168, 169, 170    alcohol abuse, 95, 126, 276, 302 placement services, 107, 108    community-based approaches, 212-213, 215-216, 264, 266, 267-268    comprehensive/collaborative interventions, 234, 265-266, 267-268, 302    controlled study designs, legal interventions, 161, 167, 168 mental health interventions, 217, 220-221 social services, 97-98, 108, 110    corporal punishment, 36, 314    costs, 2, 56, 58    databases, 21(n.2), 84    defined, 19, 32, 33-34, 36-37, 97    ecological models, 95, 275-276    educational interventions, professional training, 39, 44 social skills training, 97, 98, 100    family-oriented interventions, 96-102, 104-106, 122-129, 148, 190, 215-216, 220-223, 234, 267-268, 301-302    health care interventions, 210, 211-223, 233-235 community-based approaches, 212-213, 215-216 expert witnessing, 213-214 hospitals, 106 multidisciplinary teams, 212, 213-214, 232 identification and screening, 206, 211-213, 214, 238-239 outcome analysis, 215-217, 221, 222 see also Mental health interventions infra    health care professionals, 212 education, 212-213, 214 expert witnessing, 213-214 fatality review teams, 265-266, 311 multidisciplinary teams, 212, 213-214, 265-266    home visitation, 97, 148, 212, 220-223, 233, 235, 248-251, 267-268, 301-303    housing, 276    identification and screening, 2, 11, 206, 211-213, 214, 238-239, 265-266, 291, 302, 307    individualized interventions, 98, 109-110, 118, 148-149, 166, 220, 234    legal interventions, 159, 160-171, 188-193 child witnessing, 167-171 child witnessing, child advocates, 164, 170 child witnessing, guardians ad litem, 171 controlled study design, 161, 167, 168 court interventions, 160, 163-165, 171, 190-191 criminal prosecution, 168-169 deterrence, 168, 291 elder abuse interventions and, 184 evidence, 170-171, 213-214; see Child witnessing supra expert witnesses, 213-214 fatality review teams, 265-266, 311 guardians, 164, 171 incest, 166, 167, 168, 169, 192 mandatory offender treatment, 165-166, 168, 280 minor/false cases, 162-163 nonexperimental studies, 161-162 outcome analysis, 160-162, 165, 167-168 police, 171, 189 procedural issues, 160, 168, 170, 171 quasi-experimental studies, 190-193 reporting requirements, 126, 160-163, 166, 168, 170-171, 188, 208, 212, 269, 294, 296, 302    sexual abuse, 164, 166-169, 192-193 social workers' resistance to, 160, 161-162    mental health interventions, 9, 212, 214-220, 233, 308 adult survivors of abuse, 212, 219-220, 246-247 child witnesses of domestic violence, 111, 217-219, 234-235, 246247, 274-275, 312, 313 cognitive-behavioral approaches, 128, 166, 167-168, 215-216, 234 controlled study design, 217, 220-221 costs, 56 physically abused/neglected, 212, 214-216

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--> sexually abused, 166, 167, 212, 219-220, 242-245, 246 sexual abusers, 166, 167    mental health status of abused, 44-45, 95, 100 adult survivors of abuse, 212, 219-220, 246-247 child witnesses of domestic violence, 111, 217-219, 234-235, 246247, 274-275, 312, 313 intergenerational impacts, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220 resilient children, 219    models of, 95, 275-278    nonexperimental studies legal interventions, 161-162 mental health interventions, 217    offender-oriented interventions, 95, 165-168    outcome analysis health care interventions, 215-217, 221, 222 legal interventions, 160-162, 165, 167-168 social service interventions, 95-97, 99-101, 104, 107-108    peer support/group therapy, 215, 220, 234, 246, 268    preventive measures, 119, 291 parenting programs, 97, 98-100, 118, 264, 267, 268, 276-277, 302 sexual abuse, 102-103, 118-119 social support, 95, 97, 98-99, 100-101, 110, 118    quasi-experimental studies health care interventions, 238-251 legal interventions, 190-193 social services interventions, 98-101, 104-105, 107-108, 122-149    referral services, 126, 166, 208, 212, 215, 269, 302    risk factors, 48-49, 215, 276-277 age, 41, 49, 106, 107, 108, 168, 169, 170 alcohol abuse, 95, 107, 108, 126, 276, 302 birth-related, 48, 314 intergenerational impacts, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220 personality traits, 44-45 prediction instrument, 99, 286-287 socioeconomic status, 43, 45, 95 stress, 45, 99-101, 119, 214-215    sampling issues, 97, 108    social service interventions, 95-110, 118-119, 122-149 controlled study design, 97-98, 108, 110 family-oriented interventions, 96-102, 104-106, 122-129, 148, 190, 215-216, 220-223, 234, 267-268, 301-302 fatality review teams, 265-266, 311 hospital multidisciplinary teams, 213 individualized services, 109-110 outcome analysis, 95-97, 99-101, 104, 107-108 parenting skills, 97, 98-100, 118, 264, 267, 268, 276-277, 302 reporting requirements, 160, 161-163 residential care, 106, 109, 146 school-based services, 102-103, 118-119, 130-137 sexual abuse, 102-103, 118-119, 130-137 social support, 95, 97, 98-99, 100-101, 110, 118, 124, 215, 302    socioeconomic status, 43, 45, 95    statistics, 2, 12, 160, 265    see also Child deaths;    Child placement;    Child protective services;    Child sexual abuse Child neglect, 308    child protective services, 103    costs, 58    databases, 84    definitional issues, 19, 32, 33-34, 36-37, 97    gender factors, 42    intentionality, 36-37    proverty and, 43    social service interventions, 96-100 (passim), 103 Child placement, 66, 104-109, 146-147, 163-165, 285, 303-304    adolescents, 106, 107    age factors, 106, 107, 108    alcohol and drug abuse, 107, 108    foster care, 84, 106, 108-109, 146, 148    residential care, 106, 109, 146 Child protective services, 2, 38, 103-104    funding, 54, 160    risk severity, 285    see also Child placement Child sexual abuse    child protective services, 103    defined, 19, 32    drug treatment, 166, 167    family-oriented interventions, 166

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-->    films, 134, 136    incest, 166, 167, 168, 169, 192    integration of services, 262, 266    intergenerational effects, 47, 219-220    legal interventions, 164, 166-169, 192-193    mental health services, 166, 167, 212, 219-220, 242-245, 246    preventive measures, 102-103, 118-119    risk prediction instrument, 286    social service interventions, 102-103, 118-119, 130-137    study design, 64, 68, 76 Child witnessing, 167-171    child advocates, 164, 170    impact on child, 14, 32, 48, 111, 159, 170, 217-219, 234-235, 246-247, 274-275, 312, 313 Cognitive-behavioral approaches, 297, 315    child maltreatment, 128, 166, 167-168, 215-216, 234    domestic violence, 200, 202 Cohort studies, general, 60, 120 Community-based approaches, 9, 14, 15, 50, 59-60, 66, 84-85, 89-91, 260-261, 263-264, 271-272, 274, 284-285, 288, 308-310    child maltreatment, 212-213, 215-216, 264, 266, 267-268    defined, 20, 263-264    domestic violence, 114, 182, 268-269    ecological model, 95, 275-278    health care interventions, 207-208 child maltreatment, 212-213, 215-216    see also Advocacy programs;    Hospitals;    Public health interventions;    Shelters Comprehensive and collaborative interventions, 7, 20, 30, 66, 235, 260-275, 288, 293, 308-310    child maltreatment, 234, 265-266, 267-268, 302    defined, 260, 261    degrees of cooperation, 261, 262    elder abuse, 5-6, 234    domestic violence, 182-183, 204-205, 266-267, 268-269, 270, 300-301    health care providers, 206-207, 234    legal interventions, 7, 274-275, 280, 299-301    methodological issues, 10, 29, 60, 78-79, 85-91    referral services, 79, 116, 166, 208, 212    researcher involvement, 8, 10, 14, 16, 18, 29, 30, 59, 60-61, 65-67, 77-91, 94, 282, 284, 286, 315-318    resource-sharing, 261, 262, 264    substance abuse, 268-269, 270-271    traditional approaches versus, 261, 310    see also Integration and coordination of services Confidentiality, see Privacy and confidentiality Conservators, see Guardians and conservators Controlled studies, 14-15, 16, 21, 60, 61, 64, 68, 76-85 (passim), 90, 297, 317    child maltreatment legal interventions, 161, 167, 168 mental health interventions, 217, 220-221 social services, 97-98, 108, 110    community-based interventions, 265    domestic violence, 112, 174-175, 178, 179, 227-228    elder abuse, 117    see also Quasi-experimental studies Coordination of services, see Advocacy programs;    Comprehensive and    collaborative interventions;    Integration and coordination of services Corporal punishment, 36, 314 Cost factors, 7, 9, 11, 13, 29, 54-58, 64, 66, 235, 314-315    Canadian programs, 2    child maltreatment, 56, 58    indirect, 54, 57-58    problem identification/screening, 307    social service/public health interventions, 16-17    treatment, 2, 16-17, 54, 228, 232    see also Funding Couples counseling, 230-231 Courts, 15, 189, 297    child maltreatment, 160, 163-165, 171, 190-191    court-mandated interventions, general, 165-166, 180, 189, 280, 297 -299    domestic violence, 111, 178-182, 189, 198-203, 280 litigation against police, 172    early warning systems, 6, 298    elder abuse, 117, 120, 184, 187    methodological issues mandated treatment, 179, 280 special courts, 182    offender-oriented interventions, 165-166,

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-->    189, 280, 297;    see also Criminal prosecution;    Protective orders;    Punishment    specialized courts, 163-165, 181-182, 189    see also Child placement;    Evidence standards;    Protective orders Criminal prosecution, 158, 188, 279, 299, 301    child abuse, 168-169    domestic violence, 172, 180-181, 182-182, 188, 204, 266-267, 301 restraining orders and, 174    education of personnel, 9, 183-184, 305-306    elder abuse, 187    special prosecution units, 2, 160, 171, 172, 189 Crime, extrafamilial, 47, 108, 178, 182, 269-270, 313    juvenile delinquency, 13, 108, 264, 269-270 Cross-problem interventions, 5, 9, 260, 261, 262, 273, 275-278, 293 -294, 313    see also Alcohol and drug abuse Cultural factors, 87-88, 281-282, 283-285, 288, 309, 317    definitional issues, 33, 36-37    ecological approach, 95, 277    home visitation, 7-8, 303    personality traits, 45    sex roles, 47-48, 277, 297, 314    transitional model, 95    see also Racial and ethnic factors D Databases, 21(n.2), 84    child maltreatment, 21(n.2), 84    domestic violence, 159, 218 Definitional issues, 18-20, 31, 32-38, 317    administrative data, 39    arrest procedures, 177    child maltreatment, 19, 32, 33-34, 36-37, 97    child sexual abuse, 19, 32    community-based approaches, 20, 263-264    comprehensive/collaborative interventions, 260, 261    cultural factors, 33, 36-37    domestic violence, 19, 32, 33    elder abuse, 33, 36, 37, 38    family-oriented interventions, 18-19, 20    intentionality, 36-37    legal interventions, 38, 158    racial/ethnic factors, 33, 36    social service interventions, 32, 38 Delinquency, see Juvenile delinquency Demographic factors, 12, 40, 41    surveillance and, 39, 162    see also Age factors;    Racial and ethnic factors;    Socioeconomic status Detection, see Problem identification and screening Deterrence, 7, 9, 24-27, 280-281, 288, 300, 315 child maltreatment, 168, 291 domestic violence, 172, 175-177, 181, 188-189, 266-267, 291 elder abuse, 291 Developmental disabilities, 49 Documentation, 6-7, 82, 92, 298-299, 305    see also Reporting requirements Domestic violence, 17, 49, 86    advocacy services, 113-114, 120, 152-153, 182-183, 224, 228, 229, 231, 233-234    against husbands, 32, 42 ''battered woman" defense, 172    alcohol and drug abuse, 46, 47, 182, 230-231, 268-269    child abuse related to, 226    children, impact on, 14, 32, 48, 111, 159, 212, 217-219, 234-235, 246-247, 274-275, 312, 313    community-based interventions, 114, 182, 268-269    comprehensive/collaborative interventions, 182-183, 204-205, 266-267, 268-269, 270, 300-301    controlled study designs, 112, 174-175, 178, 179, 227-228    costs, 54-58    databases, 159, 218    definitional issues, 19, 32, 33    early warning systems, 6    ecological approach, 277    educational interventions, 183-184, 225, 226, 227-228, 230, 310    elder abuse and, 50    federal government role, 52-54    health care interventions, 223-231, 233, 235 female practitioner identification with client, 225 hospitals, 224, 227-229, 230, 252, 254, 256 hospitals, emergency rooms, 226, 227, 228, 252, 254, 256

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--> identification/screening/referral, 225-229 mental health interventions, see also Mental health interventions infra outcome analysis, 227-228 pregnancy, 225-226 quasi-experimental studies, 246-247, 252-259    health care professionals education, 225, 226-227 female practitioner identification with client, 225 multidisciplinary teams, 267    housing, 117, 120    intergenerational effects, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220    legal interventions, 159, 171-184, 204-205, 300 arrest procedures, 159, 172, 174-178, 183, 188-189, 194-197, 280, 281, 300-301 "battered woman" defense, 172 court interventions, 111, 178-182, 189, 198-203, 280 court interventions, litigation against police, 172 court interventions, protective orders, 55, 173-174, 280, 310-311 criminal prosecution, 172, 180-181, 182-182, 188, 204, 266-267, 301 criminal prosecution, restraining orders and, 174 deterrence, 172, 175-177, 181, 188-189, 266-267, 291 police, 172, 174, 182, 183, 188, 189; see also Arrest procedures supra procedural issues, 172, 175, 281; see also Arrest procedures supra reporting requirements, 5-6, 172-173, 295, 296 systemic approaches, 182-183, 204-205 victim resistance, 282-283    marital rape, 1, 19, 32, 42    mental health interventions, 9, 111, 212, 217-219, 224, 229-231, 233, 256-259, 308 cognitive-behavioral approaches, 200, 202    preventive measures, 114-115, 154-155, 291    private-sector services, 17    referral, 225-229, 269    risk factors, 41, 223, 277 age, 41-42 alcohol and drug abuse, 46, 47, 182, 268-269, 230-231, 268-269 cultural, 283 gender, 37-48, 277, 297, 314 intergenerational effects, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220 prediction instruments, 286-287 race/ethnicity, 44 socioeconomic status, 44, 112, 176, 177    sampling issues, 181, 230    social service interventions, 110-115, 119-120, 182, 183 advocacy services, 113-114 court-mandated, 178, 280 home visitation, 183, 204 hospital settings, 228 peer support, 113, 120, 198, 202, 230, 231, 256, 310 preventive interventions, 114-115 school-based, 114-115, 154-155 social isolation/support, 46, 176-177    statistics, 1-2, 12-13    systemic interventions, 182-183, 204-205, 266-267    transitional programs, 113    see also Shelters Drug abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Drug treatment interventions, 166, 167 E Ecological models, 95, 275-278 Economic factors, see Cost factors;    Financial exploitation of elderly persons;    Funding Educational attainment    developmental disabilities, 49    foster children, 108 Education and training, 11    arrest policies, 300    child maltreatment professional training, 39, 44 social skills training, 97, 98, 100    costs, 56    criminal justice personnel, 9, 183-184, 305-306    domestic violence, 183-184, 225, 226, 227-228, 230, 310    elder abuse, 116-117, 186, 232    foster children, 108

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-->    health care professionals, 9, 212-213, 214, 225, 226-228, 230, 232 , 305-306 child maltreatment, 212-213, 214 domestic violence, 225, 226-227 guidelines and protocols, 2, 206, 212, 226-228, 230, 232, 238, 306 -307    parenting, 97, 98-100, 118, 142, 264, 267, 268, 276-277, 302    social service professionals, 9, 116-117, 120, 305-306    see also School-based interventions Elder abuse/neglect, 312    adult protective services, 2, 38, 115-116, 184, 232    advocacy services, 117, 156, 184    age factors, 42    alcohol and drug abuse, 47    comprehensive/collaborative interventions, 5-6, 234    controlled study designs, 117    definitional issues, 33, 36, 37, 38    ecological approach, 277    educational interventions, 116-117, 186, 232    family-oriented interventions, 233    financial exploitation, 184-185, 186, 187    funding, 233    guardians and conservators, 186-187    health care interventions, 231-233, training for caregivers, 116-117    identification/screening, 5-6, 232, 291    legal interventions, 116, 184-187, 189, 233 arrest procedures, 184, 187 competence issues, 186, 187, 231, 281 courts, 117, 120, 184-187 criminal prosecution, 187 deterrence, 291 guardians and conservators, 115, 116, 186-187 police, 117; see also Arrest procedures supra protective orders, 185-186 reporting requirements, 5-6, 184, 185, 188, 295, 296 witnessing by elderly, 184    offender-oriented interventions, 116    outcome measures, 86, 185, 186    preventive measures, 115, 291    privacy/confidentiality, 186    referral services, 116, 231-232    residential care, 116    risk factors, 42, 45, 49-50, 115, 277, 287 child abuse as, 184 domestic violence as, 50    sampling design, 117    social service interventions, 115-117, 120, 156-157, 312    state government role, general, 115-116, 117, 185    statistics, 2, 13, 40    volunteer programs, 117, 156 Electronic monitoring devices, 174 Emergency housing, see Shelters Emergency rooms, 226, 227, 228, 252, 254, 256 Emotional abuse, 33, 43, 179 Employment status, 45-46, 84, 176, 178, 268 Ethical issues, 88, 288    autonomy versus competence, 281-283    controlled studies, 16, 80-81    dangerousness/degree of risk, 285-287    elderly persons, competence, 186, 187, 231, 281    punishment versus treatment, 280    see also Privacy and confidentiality Ethnicity, see Racial and ethnic factors;    specific groups Evaluation issues, 60-92    see also Methodological issues;    Nonexperimental studies;    Outcome    measures;    Quasi-experimental studies;    Sampling Evidence standards    legal, 158, 164, 168, 169, 170-171, 214, 280, 291    research methodology, 14, 59, 60, 62, 64, 67, 91, 291    see Child witnessing;    Witnesses F Family-oriented interventions, 264    child maltreatment, 96-102, 104-106, 122-129, 148, 190, 215-216, 220-223, 234, 267-268, 301-302    child sexual abuse, 166    cost-effectiveness, 314    couples counseling, 230-231    definitional issues, 18-19, 20    ecological approach, 277    elder abuse, 233    definitional issues, 18-19, 20    risk factors, 97

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-->    see also Family preservation services;    Home visitation Family preservation services, 8, 64, 66, 68, 78-79, 97, 104, 105, 118, 138-145, 229, 294, 303-304    cost-effectiveness, 314    outcome analysis, 104    out-of-home interventions and, 8, 64, 66, 68, 78-79    see also Home visitation Fatalities, see Child deaths Fatality review teams, 265-266, 311 Fathers    home visitation, 7-8, 302-303    stress, 99    see also Incest Feminism, 37 Financial exploitation of elderly persons, 184-185, 186, 187 First-time parents, 7-8, 315 Foster care, 84, 106, 108-109, 146, 148 Funding, 18, 50, 54, 290, 304-305    child protective services, 54, 160    elder abuse, 233 G Gender factors, 42-43, 47-48, 49    child deaths, 42    disclosure of violence, 42-43    domestic violence, 37-48, 277, 297, 314    intergenerational effects, 218    prevention efforts, 207    see also Fathers;    Women Group counseling, see Peer support/group therapy Guardians and conservators    for children, 164, 171    for elderly persons, 115, 116, 186-187    guardians ad litem, 171 H Health care interventions, 2, 15, 206-259, 279, 280    adolescents, 234, 308    costs, 55, 56, 57, 83    child maltreatment, 210, 211-223, 233-235 community-based approaches, 212-213, 215-216 expert witnessing, 213-214 identification and screening, 206, 211-213, 214, 238-239 outcome analysis, 215-217, 221, 222 quasi-experimental studies, 238-251    community-based interventions, 207-208 child maltreatment, 212-213, 215-216    comprehensive/collaborative interventions, 206-207, 234    domestic violence, 223-231, 233, 235 female practitioner identification with client, 225 identification/screening/referral, 225-229 outcome analysis, 227-228 pregnancy, 225-226 quasi-experimental studies, 246-247, 252-259    elder abuse, 231-233 training for caregivers, 116-117    federal programs, 53    outcome analysis, child maltreatment, 215-217, 221, 222 domestic violence, 227-228    preventive interventions, general, 207, 208-211    problem identification/screening, 11, 211-212, 306-307 guidelines and protocols, 2, 206, 212, 226-227, 228, 230, 232, 238 , 306-307    social isolation/support, 206    statistics on use, 206    types of, 23, 51    see also Comprehensive and collaborative interventions;    Health care professionals;    Hospitals;    Mental health interventions;    Public health interventions Health care professionals    child maltreatment, 212 education, 212-213, 214 expert witnessing, 213-214 fatality review teams, 265-266, 311 multidisciplinary teams, 212, 213-214, 265-266    documentation of abuse, 6-7, 298-299    domestic violence, education, 225, 226-227 female practitioner identification with client, 225 multidisciplinary teams, 267    education, 9, 212-213, 214, 225, 226-228, 230, 232, 305-306

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-->    elder abuse, 232    home visitation, 20, 302    identification of abuse, 11, 211-212, 232, 306-307 guidelines and protocols, 2, 206, 212, 226-227, 228, 230, 232, 238 , 306-307 reporting requirements, 212    multidisciplinary teams, 212, 213-214, 232, 265-266, 267 Healthy Families America, 223 Healthy People 2000, 210 Healthy Start, 222-223 Hispanics, 44 Home-based services, see Family preservation services; Home visitation Home visitation, 2, 5, 20, 66, 211, 294    child maltreatment, 97, 148, 212, 220-223, 233, 235, 248-251, 267-268, 301-303    cultural factors, 7-8, 303    domestic violence, 183, 204    duration/intensity, 5, 7, 97, 292, 302    fathers, 7-8, 302-303    first-time parents, 7-8    health care professionals, 20, 302    racial/ethnic factors, 7-8, 303    risk factors and, 7, 20    see also Family preservation services Hospitals    child maltreatment, 106 multidisciplinary teams, 212, 213-214, 232    domestic violence, 224, 227-229, 230, 252, 254, 256 emergency rooms, 226, 227, 228, 252, 254, 256    elder abuse, 231-232, 233    multidisciplinary teams, 212, 213-214, 232    statistics on use, 206 Housing, 84    child maltreatment, 276    domestic violence victims, 117, 120    see also Shelters I Identification, see Problem identification and screening Incest, 166, 167, 168, 169, 192 Income, see Socioeconomic status Independent Living program, 108 Individualized interventions, 66, 82-83    child maltreatment, 98, 109-110, 118, 148-149, 166, 220, 234 Informed consent, 282    children, competence, 281    elderly persons, competence, 186, 187, 231, 281 Integration and coordination of services, 2, 5, 13-14, 260, 261-262, 265-267, 269, 272, 274-278, 289-290, 292, 293-294    documentation and, 6-7, 298-299    research policy, 317    see also Advocacy programs;    Comprehensive and collaborative interventions;    Referral services Intensive family preservation services, see Family preservation services Intentionality, 36-37 Intergenerational effects    child maltreatment, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220    child sexual abuse, 47, 219-220    domestic abuse, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220 J Jurisprudence, see Courts Juvenile delinquency, 13, 108, 264, 269-270 L Legal interventions, 12, 16, 158-205    child maltreatment, 159, 160-171, 188-193 child witnessing, 167-171 child witnessing, child advocates, 164, 170 child witnessing, guardians ad litem, 171 controlled study design, 161, 167, 168 court interventions, 160, 163-165, 171, 190-191 criminal prosecution, 168-169 deterrence, 168, 291 elder abuse interventions and, 184 evidence, 170-171, 214; see Child witnessing supra expert witnesses, 213-214 fatality review teams, 265-266, 311 guardians, 164, 171 incest, 166, 167, 168, 169, 192 mandatory offender treatment, 165-166, 168, 280 minor/false cases, 162-163 nonexperimental studies, 161-162

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--> outcome analysis, 160-162, 165, 167-168 procedural issues, 160, 168, 170, 171 quasi-experimental studies, 190-193 reporting laws, 126, 160-163, 166, 168, 170-171, 188, 208, 212, 269 , 294, 296, 302 sexual abuse, 164, 166-169, 192-193 social workers' resistance to, 160, 161-162    comprehensive/collaborative interventions, 7, 274-275, 280, 299-301    costs, 2, 55, 300    definitional issues, 38, 158    domestic violence, 159, 171-184, 204-205, 300 arrest procedures, 159, 172, 174-178, 183, 188-189, 194-197, 280, 281, 300-301 "battered woman" defense, 172 court interventions, 111, 178-182, 189, 198-203, 280 court interventions, litigation against police, 172 court interventions, protective orders, 55, 173-174, 280, 310-311 criminal prosecution, 172, 180-181, 182-182, 188, 204, 266-267, 301 criminal prosecution, restraining orders and, 174 deterrence, 172, 175-177, 181, 188-189, 266-267, 291 procedural issues, 172, 175, 281; see Arrest procedures supra quasi-experimental studies, 178-179, 180, 194-205 reporting requirements, 5-6, 172-173, 295, 296 systemic approaches, 182-183, 204-205 victim resistance, 282-283    due process, 13-14, 164, 170, 311    ecological approach, 277    elder abuse, 116, 184-187, 189, 233 arrest procedures, 184, 187 competence issues, 186, 187, 231, 281 courts, 117, 120, 184-187 criminal prosecution, 187 deterrence, 291 guardians and conservators, 115, 116, 186-187 police, 117 protective orders, 185-186 reporting laws, 5-6, 184, 185, 188, 295 witnessing by elderly, 184    evidence, standards, 158, 164, 168, 169, 170-171, 214, 280, 291    integration of services, 262    local factors, 175, 176-177, 188    outcome analysis, 159 child maltreatment, 160-162, 165, 167-168 domestic violence, 172, 175-177, 179-180, 181, 183 elder abuse, 185, 186    procedural issues, 158-159 child maltreatment, 160, 168, 170, 171 domestic violence, 172, 175, 281 see also Arrest procedures    quasi-experimental studies, child maltreatment, 190-193 domestic violence, 178-179, 180, 194-205    racial/ethnic factors, 162    risk, degree of, 285-286    social services integration, 7, 274-275 mandatory offender treatment, 165-166, 168, 280 reporting requirements, 160, 161-163, 280 resistance, 160, 161-162    types of, 22-23, 51, 158, 159, 190-205    see also Child placement;    Comprehensive and collaborative interventions;    Courts;    Deterrence;    Legislation;    Police;    Punishment;    Recidivism Legislation, 11, 50    domestic violence, 171-172, 173    elder abuse, 184, 233    see also Reporting requirements Local factors, 2, 52, 89, 290    budgetary issues, 2    domestic violence policies, 175, 176-177    legal interventions, 175, 176-177, 188    see also Community-based approaches M Mandatory reporting, see Reporting requirements Marital conflict, 45-46 Marital rape, 1, 19, 32, 42 Medical interventions, see Health care interventions Mental health interventions, 207, 307-308    child maltreatment, 9, 212, 214-220, 233, 308 adult survivors of abuse, 212, 219-220, 246-247

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--> child witnesses of domestic violence, 111, 217-219, 234-235, 246247, 274-275, 312, 313 cognitive-behavioral approaches, 128, 166, 167-168, 215-216, 234 controlled study design, 217, 220-221 costs, 56 physically abused/neglected, 212, 214-216 sexual abusers, 166, 167 sexually abused children, 166, 167, 212, 219-220, 242-245, 246    domestic violence, 9, 111, 212, 217-219, 224, 229-231, 233, 256-259, 308 cognitive-behavioral approaches, 200, 202    duration and intensity, 5, 7, 97, 292, 296 Mental health status, 44-45, 48, 49    child maltreatment, 44-45, 95, 100 adult survivors of abuse, 212, 219-220, 246-247 child witnesses of domestic violence, 111, 217-219, 234-235, 24247, 274-275, 312, 313 intergenerational impacts, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220 resilient children, 219    domestic violence, 45, 224, 229-230, 256-259 battered child/wife syndromes, 37-38 "battered woman" defense, 172    elderly persons, competence, 186, 187, 231, 281    victims, general, 48, 49, 95 Methodological issues, 14-16, 18, 66-77, 290, 291, 293, 304-305, 317    administrative data, 39    arrest procedures, impacts, 177-178    clinical studies, 38-39    cohort studies, general, 60, 120    collaborative efforts, 10, 29, 60, 78-79, 85-91    community change interventions, 272-273    court interventions mandated treatment, 179, 280 special courts, 182    developmental stages, 64-65    documentation of services, 6-7, 82, 92, 298-299    evidence standards, 59, 60, 62, 64, 67    family preservation services, 8, 64, 66, 68, 78-79, 294, 303-304    health care interventions, 211, 217    home visitation, 222    measurement, 38-40, 60, 62, 286, 305, 318    multisite evaluations, 77, 317    personality studies, 48    risk factors, 41, 285-287    study designs, 60-92    time-series analyses, general, 61, 226-227    triangulation, 84-85    see also Controlled studies;    Non-experimental studies;    Outcome measures;    Quasi-experimental studies;    Sampling Minority groups, see Racial and ethnic factors Multiple approaches, see Comprehensive and collaborative interventions N National Center on Elder Abuse, 40 National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 84 National Crime Victimization Survey, 12, 40, 42, 44 National Family Violence Surveys, 13    age factors, 40, 41-42    race/ethnicity, 44 National Incidence Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect, 39, 161 Nonexperimental studies, 60, 62, 64-65, 77    child maltreatment legal interventions, 161-162    mental health interventions, 217    see also Quasi-experimental studies O Offender-oriented interventions, 6, 7, 20, 84, 114, 296-298, 301    child maltreatment, 95, 165-168    court-mandated, 165-166, 189, 280, 297;    see also Criminal prosecution;    Protective orders    domestic violence, 111, 172, 189, 265, 291    drug treatment, 166, 167    elder abuse, 116    risk factors for perpetrators, 41-48

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-->    see also Arrest procedures;    Deterrence;    Punishment;    Recidivism Older Americans Act, 233 Outcome measures, 8, 11-12, 83-86, 91, 314, 317, 308, 318    community change interventions, 272    ecological approach, 278    family preservation services, 104    health care interventions child maltreatment, 215-217, 221, 222, 238-251 domestic violence, 111, 227-228, 252-259    legal interventions, 159 child maltreatment, 160-162, 165, 167-168, 190-193 domestic violence, 172, 175-177, 179-180, 181, 183, 194-205 elder abuse, 185, 186    social services, 94, 97, 215 child maltreatment services, 95-97, 99-101, 104, 107-108, 122-149 domestic violence, 111-114, 150-155 elderly abuse, 156-157    see also Deterrence;    Recidivism Out-of-home interventions    family preservation services and, 8, 64, 66, 68, 78-79    see Child placement;    Foster care P Parenting practices, 96-97, 122-129    education on, 97, 98-100, 118, 142, 264, 267, 268, 276-277, 302    first-time parents, 7-8, 315    outcome measures, 99-100 Peer support/group therapy, 287    child maltreatment, 215, 220, 234, 246, 268    domestic violence, 113, 120, 198, 202, 230, 231, 256, 310    ethical issues, 283 Penalties, see Punishment Personality traits, see Mental health status Police, 2    child abuse teams, 171, 189    domestic violence, 172, 174, 182, 183, 188, 189    education, 9    elder abuse, 117    see also Arrest procedures Poverty, see Socioeconomic status Pregnancy, abuse during, 225-226, 238, 313 Preventive measures, 4-5, 9, 13-14, 17, 274    age factors, 207, 208-209    child maltreatment, 119, 291 parenting programs, 97, 98-100, 118, 264, 267, 268, 276-277, 302 sexual abuse, 102-103, 118-119 social support, 95, 97, 98-99, 100-101, 110, 118    community interventions, 269-270    courts, early warning systems, 6, 298    definitional issues, 33    domestic violence, 114-115, 154-155, 291    elder abuse, 115, 291    gender factors, 207    health care interventions, general, 207, 208-211    secondary, 292-293    types of, 24-27, 51    see also Deterrence;    Family preservation services;    Home visitation;    Offender-oriented interventions;    Punishment;    Recidivism Privacy and confidentiality, 6, 88, 274, 282-283, 295    domestic violence, 224    elder abuse, 186 Problem identification and screening, 4-6, 9, 12-13, 79-81, 233, 234    child maltreatment, 2, 11, 206, 211-213, 214, 238-239, 265-266, 291 , 302, 307, 311    domestic violence, 224, 225-230, 231, 252-255    elder abuse, 5-6, 232, 291    fatality review teams, 265-266, 311    health care personnel, 11, 211-212, 306-307 guidelines and protocols, 2, 206, 212, 226-227, 228, 230, 232, 238 , 306-307    scope of problem, 34-35, 38-40, 54, 57-58 child maltreatment, 2, 55, 56, 58, 300 databases, 21(n.2), 84, 159, 218 domestic violence, 1-2, 12-13, 54-58 elder abuse, 2, 13, 40    types of, 24-27, 51    see also Referral services;    Reporting requirements;    Risk factors Protective orders, 9    domestic violence, 55, 173-174, 280, 310-311    elder abuse, 185-186    electronic monitoring, 174 Public health interventions, 207-211, 224, 235, 269

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-->    cost factors, 16-17    see also Home visitation;    terms beginning "Family…" Punishment, 2, 11, 13, 16, 278-281, 288, 297-298    child maltreatment, 168-169    domestic violence, 172, 176, 180, 181-182, 204    elder abuse, 184    risk severity, 285    see also Deterrence; Recidivism Punishment of children, see Corporal punishment Q Quasi-experimental studies, 62, 68    child maltreatment health care interventions, 238-251 legal interventions, 190-193 social services interventions, 98-101, 104-105, 107-108, 122-149    domestic violence health care interventions, 246-247, 252-259 legal interventions, 178-179, 180, 194-205 social services interventions, 111, 112-113, 150-155    elder abuse social services interventions, 156-157 R Racial and ethnic factors, 87-88, 283, 284    definitional issues, 33, 36    domestic violence, 112, 178    home visitation, 7-8, 303    legal interventions, 162    researchers, minority, 284, 288    risk factor data, 39, 44    spousal abuse, 44    see also Cultural factors;    specific groups Rape, see Incest;    Marital rape;    Sexual abuse Recidivism, 158-159, 166-168, 176, 178, 179, 183, 188, 198, 296, 297 Referral services, 79, 262, 269, 283    child maltreatment, 126, 166, 208, 212, 215, 269, 302    comprehensive/collaborative interventions, 79, 116, 166, 208, 212    domestic violence, 225-229, 269    elder abuse, 116, 231-232    informed consent, 282 Reporting requirements, 5-6, 15, 294-296, 315    child maltreatment, 126, 160-163, 166, 168, 170-171, 188, 208, 212 , 269, 294, 296, 302 adolescents, 296    domestic violence, 5-6, 172-173, 295, 296    elder abuse, 5-6, 184, 185, 188, 295, 296 Residential care    child maltreatment, 106, 109, 146    elder abuse, 116 Restraining orders, see Protective orders Risk factors, 13, 19, 31, 39, 41-50, 208, 260, 269, 273, 292    arrest policies and, 300    child maltreatment, 48-49, 215, 276-277 age, 41, 49, 106, 107, 108, 168, 169, 170 alcohol/drug abuse, 95, 107, 108, 126, 276, 302 birth-related, 48, 314 intergenerational impacts, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220 personality traits, 44-45 prediction instruments, 99, 286-287 socioeconomic status, 43, 45, 95 stress, 45, 99-101, 119, 214-215    cross-problem interventions, 5, 9, 260, 261, 262, 273, 275-278, 293 -294, 313    dangerousness/degree of risk, 285-287    domestic violence, 41, 223, 277 age, 41-42 alcohol and drug abuse, 46, 47, 182, 268-269, 230-231, 268-269 cultural, 283 gender, 37-48, 277, 297, 314 intergenerational effects, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220 prediction instruments, 286-287 race/ethnicity, 44 socioeconomic status, 44, 112, 176, 177    ecological model, 95, 275-278    elder abuse, 42, 45, 49-50, 115, 277, 287 child abuse as, 184 domestic violence as, 50    family social support interventions, 97    home visitation, 7, 20    intergenerational effects of violence, 18, 46-47, 178, 217-220    methodological issues, 41, 285-287

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-->    see also Problem identification and screening;    specific risk factors S Sampling, 14-15, 18, 34, 39, 40, 61, 64, 68    baseline data, 2, 40, 59, 79    child maltreatment, 97, 108    clinical studies, 39    domestic violence, 181, 230    effect size, 76-77, 92, 272    elder abuse, 117    quasi-experimental studies, 68, 108    risk, degree of, 285 School-based interventions    child sexual abuse, 102-103, 118-119, 130-137    domestic violence, 114-115, 154-155 Screening, see Problem identification and screening;    Referral services Sentences and penalties, see Punishment Sexual abuse    adult victims, 18, 32, 42-43;    see also Marital rape    intergenerational effects, 47, 219-220    see also Child sexual abuse Shelters, 2, 9, 30, 66, 83, 110, 112-113, 119-120, 150-151, 264, 270, 310 Sibling violence, 48 Single mothers, 126 Social isolation/support, 46, 268, 283    child maltreatment, 95, 97, 98-99, 100-101, 110, 118, 124, 215, 302    domestic violence, 46, 176-177    health care agencies, role, 206 Social network models, 98, 118, 124, 264, 309 Social service interventions, 93-157, 279, 280    child maltreatment, 95-110, 118-119, 122-149 controlled study design, 97-98, 108, 110 family-oriented interventions, 96-102, 104-106, 122-129, 148, 190, 215-216, 220-223, 234, 267-268, 301-302 fatality review teams, 265-266, 311 hospital multidisciplinary teams, 213 individualized services, 109-110 outcome analysis, 95-97, 99-101, 104, 107-108 parenting skills, 97, 98-100, 118, 264, 267, 268, 276-277, 302 reporting requirements, 160, 161-163 residential case, 106, 109, 146 school-based services, 102-103, 118-119, 130-137 sexual abuse, 102-103, 118-119, 130-137 social isolation/support, 95, 97, 98-99, 100-101, 110, 118, 124, 215, 302    child neglect, 96-100 (passim), 103    cost factors, 16-17    definitional issues, 32, 38    documentation of abuse, 6-7, 298-299    domestic violence, 110-115, 119-120, 182, 183 advocacy services, 113-114 court-mandated, 178, 280 home visitation, 183, 204 hospital settings, 228 peer support, 113, 120, 198, 202, 230, 231, 256, 310 preventive interventions, 114-115 school-based, 114-115, 154-155 social isolation/support, 46, 176-177    duration and intensity, 5, 7, 97, 292, 296, 302    elder abuse, 115-117, 120, 156-157, 312    federal programs, 53    health services integration, 274    legal services integration, 7, 274-275 mandatory offender treatment, 165-166, 168, 280 reporting requirements, 160, 161-163, 280    researchers, collaboration with, 8, 10, 16, 18, 29, 30, 59, 60-61, 65-67, 77-89, 94, 282, 284, 286, 315-318    risk, degree of, 286    types of, 22, 51, 69, 93    see Child placement;    Comprehensive and collaborative interventions;    Family-oriented interventions;    Family preservation services;    Home    visitation;    Shelters;    Social isolation/support Social service professionals    education, 9, 116-117, 120, 305-306    fatality review teams, 265-266, 311    legal interventions, antagonism for, 160, 161-162 Social skills training, 97, 98, 100 Socioeconomic status, 36, 39, 43-44, 45, 272, 276, 284    child maltreatment, 43, 45, 95    domestic violence, 44, 112, 176, 177    elder abuse, financial exploitation, 184-185, 186, 187 Spousal abuse, see Domestic violence;    Marital rape;    Shelters

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--> Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information Systems, 84 Stress, general, 45-46, 313-314    child maltreatment, 45, 99-101, 119, 214-215    elder abuse, 115    natural helpers, 101    poverty, 43    relaxation techniques, 99 Substance abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Symptoms, see Problem identification and screening Systemic approaches, see Comprehensive and collaborative interventions; Public health interventions T Theoretical issues, 15, 31, 83, 90, 92, 189, 297    ecological, 95, 275-278    feminism, 37    social services, 94, 95    transactional and transitional models, 95 Time-series analyses, general, 61, 226-227 Training, see Education and training Transactional model, 95 Transitional model, 95 U Unemployment, see Employment status Urban areas, 107 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 52-54, 84 V Verbal abuse, 179 Volunteer programs, elder abuse, 117, 156 W White persons, 44 Wife beating, see Domestic violence Witnesses    elderly victims, 184    expert, child maltreatment, 213-214    see also Child witnessing Women, 40    clinical studies, 39    ecological approach, 277    feminism, 37    sexual abuse of, 43;    see also Marital rape    single mothers, 126    see also Domestic violence;    Gender factors

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