TABLE 5-11 Confined Disposal Facility

State of Practice (system maturity, known pilot studies, etc.)


Advantages/ Effectiveness


Research Needs

(a) The most commonly used placement alternative for contaminated sediments; (b) hundreds of sites nationwide for navigation dredging projects; (c) often used for pretreatment prior to final placement or as final sediment placement site for remediation projects.

Applicable to a wide variety of sediment types and project conditions.

(a) Low cost compared to ex situ treatment; (b) compatible with a variety of dredging techniques, especially direct placement by hydraulic pipeline; (c) proper design results in high retention of suspended sediments and associated contaminants; (d) engineering for basic containment normally involves conventional technology; (e) controls for containment pathways usually can be incorporated into site design and management; (f) conventional monitoring approaches can be used; (g) site can be used for beneficial purposes following closure, with proper safeguards.

(a) Does not destroy or detoxify contaminants unless combined with treatment; (b) control of some contaminant-loss pathways may be expensive.

(a) Design approaches, such as covers and liners, needed for low-cost contaminant controls; (b) design criteria for treatment of releases or control strategies for high-profile contaminants; (c) methods for site management to allow restoration of site capacity and potential use of treated materials.

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