to be the most visible drug abuse treatment programs in correctional settings, there are numerous other modalities, many of which are grounded in individual and group counseling and 12-step approaches. However, there is limited information about these programs in the drug abuse literature. There are virtually no methadone maintenance programs offered in correctional settings, which is most likely a result of policies to eliminate the availability of a medication that is itself a controlled drug.

Most treatment of drug-involved offenders takes place in community-based settings as a condition of parole or probation or in lieu of prison. Treatment in the community is made possible through programs that link the criminal justice system with specialty drug abuse treatment programs. The most prominent example is Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC), whose programs are found in more than 25 states (Inciardi and McBride, 1991). Evaluation data indicate that TASC-referred clients remain in treatment longer than non-TASC clients (court referrals to treatment without TASC services). Other programs linking treatment to parole and probation have experienced favorable results (Chavaria, 1992; Van Stelle et al., 1994).

Although there are extensive studies of drug-involved offenders who are treated effectively in community settings, there is a dearth of information about drug treatment programs in prisons or about the best means of treating drug abusers in these settings. What is known is that for the few prisoners who succeed in gaining access to a limited number of prisonbased therapeutic communities, treatment is effective. Many in the drug treatment community believe that prisoners have the most profound treatment system needs in light of the pervasive violence and widespread availability of illicit drugs within the prison system. The co-occurrence of addictive and severe psychiatric disorders is also highest in the prison population (Regier et al., 1990).

Adolescents

Adolescents are also vulnerable to the consequences of drug abuse, including health effects, accidents and injuries, involvement with violence resulting from illegal activities, and the transmission of HIV (Czechowicz, 1991). Adolescent drug abusers differ from adult drug abusers in several ways that are significant for treatment. The majority of adolescent drug abusers have a shorter history of drug abuse; have less severe symptoms of tolerance, craving, and withdrawal; and usually do not have the long-term physical effects of drug abuse (Kaminer, 1994). However, they are at the greatest risk for developing lifelong patterns of drug abuse (Dusenbury et al., 1992).

Adolescents accounted for about 11.1 percent of all patients in spe-



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