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Index A Aging of aerosols, 131 Alaska, 175 Analogs, 164-69, 174-81 Antigreenhouse effect, 149, 168 Arctic haze, 39, 164-65 Asbestos, 122 Ash and debris particle scavenging, 68 Atmospheric changes, 127-73 baseline case, 2-4 cloudiness and precipitation, 157-58, 162-63 data uncertainty, 5-6, 9 ground fog, 156-57 light-level reduction, 132-36 long-term climate changes, 163-64 from meteor impacts, 40-41, 174, 180-81, 186 models used, 127-28 natural occurrences as analogs, 164-68 optical effects, 132-36 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 particulate clouds, early spread and evolution of, 128-32 research recommendations, 10-12 summary, 1-2, 6-9, 169, 185-87 thermal and circulation changes, multidimensional models, 150-56 thermal changes, one-dimensional models, 136-50 toxic chemicals release, 121-23 troposphere composition, 118-21 from volcanic eruptions, 84, 167, 178-79 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 winds, 158-62 Australia, 97 B Baseline and excursive nuclear exchanges atmospheric effects, 2-4. See also Atmospheric changes basic assumptions, 13-16 carbon monoxide emissions, 109-110 dust lofted, 3, 7-8, 17, 21-22, 30-33 fireball dynamics, 17-22 fires and smoke emissions, 54-57, 61, 62, 71, 76, 79-87 hydrocarbon emissions, 110-11 nitrogen dioxide emissions, 112 ozone reduction by nitrogen oxides, 113-16 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Black rain, 66, 77, 78, 85, 102 Bomb fires Germany, 40, 97-99 189

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190 Japan, 36, 43, 46-48, 98, 101-2 C Canada, 73, 74, 165 Carbon (soot), 7, 37, 39, 58-59, 61, 62, 131, 165. See also Smoke emissions Carbon dioxide, 104 Carbon monoxide, 109-10 Chemical emissions. See Gaseous ~ emlss Ions Chlorine compounds, 121, 122 Climate changes. See Atmospheric changes Clouds changes in, 157-58, 162-63 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Coagulation of smoke particles, 63-66, 85-86, 131 Combustible materials, 3, 51-S7, 85, 111, 121-23 Conflagrations, 36n. See also Fires D Dibenzofurans, 121 Dimethyl disulfide, 121 Dimethyl sulfide, 120, 121 Dioxins, 121 Droplet scavenging, 66-68, 77-80 Dust, 17-35, 86 amount lofted, baseline and excursion values, 3, 7-8, 17, 30-33 atmospheric effects. See Atmospheric changes data sources, 11, 26-27 from meteor impacts, 2, 21, 32, 174, 180-81, 186 nuclear cloud dynamics, 17-22 optical properties, 28, 30 particle size distributions, 27-28 removal from fire plumes, 77 research recommendations, 10-12 sources of nuclear dust, 17, 22-26 from volcanic eruptions, 167, 174-80 E Earthquakes, 39-40 Extinctions, biological, 2, 174, 180-81, 186 Extraterrestrial impacts, 2, 8-9, 12, 21, 32, 40-41, 174, 180-81, 186 F Fallout, 11, 22, 26 Fire whirls, 36n Fires, 3-4, 7 burning times, 73 data uncertainties, 85 estimation methodology, 36-37 experimental, 41 forest and wildland combustibles, 53, 55-57 forest ignition, 48-50 gaseous emissions, 107-12 historical experiences, 36, 39-41, 97-99 ignition mechanism, 41-46 research recommendations, 11 toxic chemicals release, 121-23 urban combustibles, 51-5S urban ignition, 46-48 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 See also Smoke emissions Firestorms, 36n, 41, 98 Flame retardants, 61 Fog, 156-57 Forest fires historical experiences, 40-41, 73, 74, 97-98, 165-66 See also Fires; Smoke emissions Franklin, Benjamin, 175

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191 Gabriel project, 185 Gaseous emissions, 107-26 carbon monoxide, 109-10 hydrocarbons, 110-11 nitric oxide, 107-8 nitrogen oxides, 4, 8, 12, 111-19, 186 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 toxic chemicals, 121-23 troposphere changes, 118-21 Germany, 40, 97-99 Greenhouse effect, 104, 149 Guatemala, 178 H Hiroshima, 36, 43, 46-48, 66, 68, 77-79, 98, 101-2 Hydrocarbon emissions, 110-11 Hydrogen sulfide, 120, 121 I Iceland, 97, 175 Indonesia, 175, 178 Industrial chemicals, 121-23 Infrared properties dust, 30 smoke, 68-70, 72, 85, 87 L Light-level reductions, 7, 132-36 M Martian dust storms, 168 Mass fires, 36n. See also Fires Meteor impacts, 2, 8-9, 12, 21, 32, 40-41, 174, 180-81, 186 Meteotron facility, 65, 97 Methane, 110-11 Methyl mercaptan, 121 Mexico, 178, 179 Missile silo fields, 57 Model simulations, 4 models used, 10-11, 127-28 uncertainties, 5-6, 9, 117-18 See also Atmospheric changes Mount St. Helens eruption, 30, 167, 178, 179 N Nagasaki, 36, 43, 46-48, 66, 77, 78 Nitric oxide, 107-8 Nitrogen oxides, 111-12 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 smog formation, 118, 119 Nuclear tests, 11, 185 ozone reduction by, 117 samples collected from, 26-27 o Oceans, 120-21, 157 Oil fires, 61, 97 Optical depth, 37n, 84 Optical effects of particulate clouds, 7, 132-36 Optical properties dust, 28, 30 smoke, 68-73, 85-87 Organic peroxides, 118 Overpressure, 43n Ozone layer, 104, 118 reduction by nitrogen oxides, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 p Particle size distributions dust particles, 27-28, 32 smoke particles, 61-68, 71-72 Particulate emissions. See Dust; Smoke emissions Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), 118 Photosynthesis, 120 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 121

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192 Precipitation black rain, 66, 77, 78, 85, 102 changes in, 157-58 Precipitation scavenging, 39, 66-68, 77-80, 85-86, 131 R Radioactive fallout, 11, 22, 26 Rain. See Precipitation; Precipitation scavenging Research recommendations, 10-12 S Sahara dust plumes, 167-68 Scavenging of smoke particles, 39, 66-68, 77-80, 85-86, 104, 131 Siberia, 40-41 Silicate particles, 175, 178, 179 Simulations. See Atmospheric changes; Model simulations Smog, 108, 118-19 Smoke emissions, 3-4, 7, 37-39, 58-106 baseline and excursive estimates, 80-85 climatic effects. See Atmospheric changes current global smoke emission, 37-39 data uncertainties, 85-86 emission factors, 58-61 estimation methodology, 36-37, 80-84 forest fire smoke, 71-73 injection altitudes, 73-76 obscurations produced by, 99 optical properties, 68-71 particulate clouds, early spread and evolution of, 128-32 physical properties, 58 plume heights, observations of, 97-99 removal from plumes, 4, 39, 77-80, 131 research recommendations, 10, 11 size distribution and composition, 61-68 urban smoke, 58-71 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Soot (graphitic carbon), 7, 37, 39, 58-59, 61, 62, 131, 165 See also Smoke emissions Stratosphere dust lofted to, 7-8, 17, 31-33 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 smoke injection altitudes, 76 See also Atmospheric changes Sulfur compounds, 120, 121, 175, 178 Sulfuric acid, 178 Sunshine project, 185 Surtsey Island, 97 T Temperature changes, 8 from forest fires, 165-66 from Martian dust storms, 168 multidimensional models, 150-56 one-dimensional models, 136-50 from Sahara dust, 167-68 from volcanic eruptions, 167, 178-79 Toxic chemical releases, 121-23 Troposphere smoke injection altitudes, 73-76 See also Atmospheric changes Tunguska meteor, 40-41 U United States forest fires, 97-98 volcanic eruptions, 30, 167, 175, 178, 179 Urban fires. See Fires; Smoke . emlsslons

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193 V Volcanic eruptions, 8-9, 12, 28, 30, 77, 84, 167, 174-80 W Water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Wildland fires. See Fires; Smoke emissions Winds afterwinds, 25 changes in, 158-62 Sahara wind/dust storms, 167-68 World War II, 40