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TABLE 3 Comparison of Water Quality Standards (for Health Purposes) [units: mg/l]

Country

Cadmium

Cyanide

Lead

Chromium (hexavalent)

Arsenic

Total Mercury

Japan

0.01

ND

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.0005

USA (in Ohio, for the Ohio R)

0.01

0.025

0.05 (dissolved Pb)

0.05

0.05

0.0002

Canada (Ontario)

0.0002

0.05

0.05–025

0.1 (total Cr)

0.10

0.0002

Holland

0.0025

NA

0.05

NA

0.05

0.005

China (draft)

0.01

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.04

0.001 (Inorg. Hg)

SOURCE: Japan Environment Agency. Numbers are not strictly comparable because each country may use different instruments, analytical procedures, and requirements of the location of measurements.

Terms:

ND: not detectable; NA: not available (either no standard, not published, or not convertible).

international public participation, the EC recognized that differences in procedural rights in bordering countries were sometimes irreconcilable. Consequently the directive contains only an obligation to provide the public authorities of a neighboring country with the information commonly provided the citizens of the country in which a project is located. Consultation of the affected public in the neighboring country is the responsibility of the authorities in that country, which are also charged with providing a response to the agency that is managing the assessment process. No general direct citizen participation proved possible. In several instances, projects close to the border have created tension between countries and caused demonstrations by citizens from one country who felt curtailed in their rights to be consulted.

Subsequent implementation of environmental regulations frequently involves broad participation as well, either because people find themselves affected by some practice with environmental impacts and make their concern known, or because potentially affected persons undertake informal monitoring activities that can help to set priorities for more formal enforcement efforts. Indeed, no country has implemented effective rules for environmental management without the direct participation of its citizens.

The bedrock of this procedural structure is a permitting system by which public authorities determine who may emit what amounts of which substances



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