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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals INDEX

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals This page in the original is blank.

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals A ABS, 53 Access to information cross-border issues, 207-209 environmental quality data, 145 EPA policy, 125 policy goals, 116 for public participation in policy-making, 207, 340 recommendations for, 7 tools for, 340 Acid rain, 62-63 Adaptive management, 337-338, 341 Agriculture PCSD goals, 129, 440 in prairie ecosystem, 276 Agriculture, U.S. Department of, 145-146, 359-360 Air quality CENR research goals, 108, 130 climate change risk reduction, 103 current scientific understanding, 333 demonstration graphics, 161 energy system pollution, 62 EPA goals, 102-103, 119 incentive-based management, 30 monitoring, 47 pollution prevention, 150-151 Animal testing, 8, 56, 58 Antartica, 39-40 Army Corps of Engineers, 364 Automobiles alternatives to combustion engines, 10, 70 emission standards, 20-21, 293 environmental management in manufacture of, 308 negative effects, 10, 70 B Biodiversity CENR research goals, 130 current scientific understanding, 333-334 international agreements, 152 keystone species, 334-335 policy goals, 329-330 research needs, 338, 339, 341, 343 C Canada, 199, 210-212, 217-219

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals CENR. See Committee on Environment and Natural Resources CFCs, 54, 296, 298, 306-307 Chemical contaminants among causes of death, 460 byproducts, 55-56, 57 CENR research goals, 109-110 corporate management interventions, 318-319 current scientific understanding, 332-333 degradation behavior, 57 environmental concerns, 51-52 EPA safety goals, 122 groundwater contamination, 53 historical problems, 52-54 industrial ecology system for controlling, 77 industry self-regulation, 302-303 inter-agency goal consistency, 110 limitations of current knowledge, 7-8 measurement goals, 57-58 pesticides, 53 predictive modeling, 56-57, 58, 59 recommendations for research, 8, 58-59 regulatory system, 55 research needs, 56-58, 341 risk assessment, 454-455, 456 scale effects, 52 structure-activity relationship prediction, 55, 56 synergistic interactions in environment, 57 Chlorinated solvents, 54 Chlorinated water, 54 Clean Air Act, 292, 294 goals, 99, 102, 293 Clean Water Act, 292, 293, 294 Coal production and use future prospects, 66 recommendations for research, 9-10, 70 Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies, 296, 310-311 Command-and-control regulation, 29 Commerce, U.S. Department of, 146 Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR), 18-19, 100 evaluation of goals, 112-115 goals for research, 107-110, 130-134 inter-agency goal comparison, 110, 116-118 Comparative risk assessment community-level program, 253-254 environmental policy projects, 246-247, 258 project design, 246 recommendations for research, 6, 35 research needs, 31, 32 Congress, 419-422, 439 recommendations for, 7, 48 Continuous improvement, 88, 300 Corporate environmental management conceptual approaches, 283-284 as eco-efficiency, 310 goal-setting, 288-296 goal-setting by individual firms, 297-302 goals for, 410-411 industry collaborations, 296, 302-308 industry-government collaborations, 296, 308-309 managing for environment, 288, 291, 309-311 measuring performance, 318-320 questions regarding, 320-322 stages of, 285-288 voluntary self-regulation, 295-296 Cost-benefit analysis for incentive-based regulation, 5 pollution control technology, 27-28 public opinion, 183 recommendations for research, 5, 34-35 research needs, 31, 32 uncertainty of economic projections, 456-457 valuation of ecological services for, 339-340 Council on Environmental Quality, 136,145 Critical loads, 214

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals D DDT, 52 Defense, U.S. Department of, 353, 355, 358, 368 Demonstration graphics, 161-178 Design for environment, 76-77, 301, 311, 313-314 Developing countries energy systems, 63, 70-71 environmental protection through political/economic systems, 424, 428-429 global implications of population growth in, 82-83 sustainable development in, 83-84 Dioxin, 54, 103 Drinking water EPA budget, 350 EPA goals, 121 E Earth Summit, 151 Ecological footprint, 84 Ecological knowledge for assessing environmental change, 332, 337, 341-342 of climate change, 335-336, 341-342 of ecosystem thresholds, 335 evolution of, 328, 332 of genetic engineering effects, 336-337 of habitat loss/fragmentation, 333-334 limits of, 328 patterns of species diversity, 338 policy-making applications, 328-329 for predicting human impacts, 328-329, 341 public education for, 412, 447 for resource management, 331-332, 337-338, 340-341 for setting environmental management goals, 329-332, 338-340, 342, 343 of species addition/removal, 334-335 of toxic substance effects in environment, 332-333 for valuing ecological services, 330-331, 339-340 Economic analysis calculating environmental externalities, 212 cost of natural resources, 425 economic growth and demand for environmental protection, 220-201 ecosystem approach to resource management, 147-148, 331-332 of energy system, 61-62, 64-65 environmental standards selection, 206 environmentally-sensitive purchasing, 75 equity issues in environmental justice, 439 growth vs. prosperity, 440-441, 445 industrial ecology perspective, 74 market-oriented environmental policy, 254-259, 410-411, 441 motivation to reduce pollution, 287 PCSD goals, 104-105 population growth, 81, 82 sustainable development, 83-84 uncertainty in economic projections, 456-457 valuation of ecological services, 74-75, 330-331, 339-340 See also Financial issues Educational interventions, 412, 447 Electricity production and use, 9, 69 Endangered Species Act, 148, 186-187, 329, 330 Energy, U.S. Department of, 146, 355, 359, 370, 408-409, 460-461 Energy system alternative resources for, 66 assessment per capita, 251 coal-based, 9-10, 66, 70 current research activities, 65, 426-427 demonstration graphics, 172-178 economic context, 61-62, 64-65 efficiency, 62, 65, 67-68 electricity, 9, 69 environmental effects, 61, 62-64 federal oversight, 146 fossil fuel-based, 10, 65-66

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals global impact, 63 hydrogen as carrier for, 68, 70 life-cycle analysis, 314 nuclear power-based, 10, 66-67, 70 PCSD goals, 129, 441 pollution prevention interventions, 151 potential threats to, 9, 69 recommendations for policy, 10-11, 70-71 recommendations for research, 9-10, 69-70 renewable, 9, 64-65, 69 research goals, 68-69 research needs, 65-66, 67 social value, 61 wood-based, 63 Environment defined, 15 Environmental movement conceptual basis, 423-424 consensus, 420-421 flawed assumptions about limits, 423-424, 425 origins of, 291-292 public identification with, 181 successes of, 427 Environmental Protection Agency accomplishments, 432 air quality goals, 102-103, 119 budget, 348-350, 355, 361-362, 368, 370, 394-396 chemical product regulation, 55 climate change risk reduction, 103 comparative risk projects, 246 evaluation of goals, 112-115 goals and milestones, 17-19, 99, 101-103, 119-125,150, 433-436 inter-agency goal comparison, 110, 116-118 mission, 147, 292, 348, 432 origins and development, 136, 292, 348, 431 performance standards, 262 waste management policy, 103, 123 EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency Epidemiology, 457-458 Equilibrium state, 328, 332 European Community environmental policy, 228-230, 231, 233 environmental standards, 204-207 public participation in policy-making, 207-209 research community, 230 science policy, 230-231 F Federal Insecticide. Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 55, 57 Financial issues advantages of incentive-based regulation, 30-31 CENR research goals, 107 continuity of state environmental technology programs, 261-262 costs of environmental protection, 27-28 environmental component of federal budget, 365-368 federal budget analysis, 347-348, 370-372 federal budget process, 347 federal environmental budget, 350-355 See also specific federal agencies funding status of environmental efforts, 24 funding support for regulatory requirements, 32 implementation of incentive-based protection, 32 international comparison of environmental protection costs, 210-213 nuclear fusion energy systems research, 67 public opinion on environmental spending, 184-185 selection of environmental indicators, 141-145 See also Economic analysis Fisheries management, 402, 405-406 Food and Drug Administration, 55 Food safety/supply, 440, 450-452

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals EPA goals, 121 international trade, 196-197 France, 206, 220-222 G Genetic Engineering, 336-337 Germany, 196, 198, 200, 206, 213-214, 222-225 Global climate change, 24, 63 CENR research goals, 108-109, 132 current understanding, 335-336 disease risk and, 336 EPA goals, 103 inter-agency goal consistency, 110 international efforts, 151 monitoring, 405 research needs, 341-342, 440 Goals/goal-setting assessment of trade-offs in, 111, 113, 116 based on rates of change, 13-14, 87-89 based on valuation of ecological services, 330-331, 339-340 CENR, 107-110, 130-134 community-level programs, 253-254 consensus, 22, 408, 420-421 contexts for setting, 244-245 corporate performance evaluation, 318-320 criteria for evaluation of, 111-112 designers of, 111-112, 114 for ecological monitoring, 37 economic growth vs. economic prosperity, 440-441, 445 end point, 13-14, 88, 89 environmental standards, 20 EPA, 99, 101-103, 119-125, 150, 433-436 evolution in corporate sector, 283-284 as expressed in federal budget, 347, 348, 370-372 geographic variation, 198-199 government-industry coalitions for setting, 308-309 inadequate descriptions, 99 of industrial ecology, 73 of industry, 20-21, 297-302, 320-322 of industry groups, 302-308 inter-agency comparison, 112-115, 116-118 inter-agency consistency, 99-100, 110,114-115, 457 knowledge base for decision-making, 38, 328, 329-332, 338-340 laws vs., 408 market considerations, 262-264, 410-411, 441 measures of success, 111, 112-113 moral context, 411 for national economic sustainability, 316-318 nature of, 288-290 NOAA, 403-405 objectives, 289 participants for setting, 263-264 performance standards, 262, 404 policy mechanisms for achieving, 111, 113 policy-making environment, 17-19, 117-118 pollution prevention, 150-151 President's Council on Sustainable Development, 104-107, 126-129, 437-447 priorities, 253 process, 290, 301-302 progress assessment, 111, 113 public perception of environmental risk, 21-22, 118 recommendations for, 14, 89 resource management, 331-332 role of technology for achieving, 424, 426-427 science policy, 194 scope of, 111, 112, 117 societal, 15-16, 22-25 stages of corporate environmental management, 290-296 state of the art, 117 state policies, 248-254 targets, 289-290 time frame, 111, 112, 117 unaddressed topics, 115-116, 117

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals updating, 259-260 Green business, 255-256, 288 Groundwater contamination, 53, 103 H Hazardous waste CENR goals, 134 CENR research goals, 109-110 EPA goals, 124 Vermont experience, 272-274 Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of, 146 Health risks of chemical contaminants, 460 disease outbreaks related to climate change, 336 lifestyle issues, 459-460 noncancer, 5, 32, 35 risk assessment methodology, 458-459 Heavy metals, 57 Hydrogen energy, 10 I Incentive-based regulation advantages, 4-5, 28-29, 34 applications, 32-33 effectiveness, 29-31 examples, 29 in industrial ecology approach, 79 recommendations for research, 5-6, 34-35 research needs, 32-34 tools for implementation, 5, 32, 34 Indicators of environmental quality, 44-45, 46, 105 conceptual framework, 137-139 cost considerations, 141-145 critical loads approach, 214 current practice, 137 definition, 139-140 demonstration graphics, 161-178 economic implications of standards selection, 206 evaluation of, 111-112 for international comparison, 213-215 marine fisheries, 405 public understanding, 154-156 research needs, 342 risk assessment for, 451 selecting data sets for, 156 selection criteria and procedure, 154-160, 444-445 state of the environment measures, 141 in state policy-making and regulation, 247-248 suspended sediment concentration as, 140 sustainable development approach, 149-150 validity, 154 Industrial ecology analytical approach, 11, 73-74, 78 definition, 311-312 goals, 73, 76, 312 leverage for implementation, 75 material separation technologies, 77 obstacles to, 77-78 principles of, 312-313 products as services perspective, 74-75 recommendations for implementation, 12, 79 research needs, 11 selection of manufacturing process, 77 Infant mortality, 105 Information management development of ecological science, 328 for federal budget analysis, 347, 371 for international comparison of environmental protection costs, 212-213 national data collection program, 415-416 science and policy-making, 193-194 See also Access to information; Ecological knowledge; Research Inter-agency Committee on Environmental Trends, 137 Interior, U.S. Department of, 146, 355, 359, 413 National Biological Service, 414-417 International comparison civil service tradition, 210

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals cost of environmental protection 210-213 environmental goals, 198-199 environmental pressures, 201-202 environmental quality, 213-215 environmental regulation, 194-197, 202-203 integrated environmental policy-making, 198 interdisciplinary research, 236 legislation, 203-204 regulatory procedure, 207-210 research activities, 237-238 significance for policy-making, 203, 215, 216-217 standards, 204-207 International Organization for Standardization, 304-305, 318-319 International relations chemical product test standards, 59 climate change research and policy, 63 coordination of environmental regulations, 27 coordination of environmental standards, 20, 204-207 coordination of research, 236 for environmental cooperation, 151-152 importance of, 203 for industry self-regulation, 296 population growth management, 82-83, 86 public participation in decision-making, 207-209 trade practice, 27, 152, 196-197 U.S. leadership role, 446-447 Internet, 7 ISO standards, 304-305, 318-319 J Japan, 198, 233-235 Justice, U.S. Department of, 146 K Keystone species, 334-335 L Labor, U.S. Department of, 146 Land use planning, 197 Lead toxicity, 53 Life-cycle analysis, 76-77, 312, 314-316 Local conditions regulatory consideration, 198-199, 201 research needs, 341, 342-343 resource management goals, 338 M Marketable discharge permits, 29 Mercury, 54, 103 Miniecosystems, 57, 59 Minnesota Milestones program, 248-253 Monitoring of ecological systems access to data, 7, 145 air quality, 47, 102 biological systems data, 40 chemical product effects, 57-58, 59 climate change, 405 Council on Environmental Quality responsibilities, 136-137, 145 current practice, 43, 46 data needs, 45-46 data sources, 140-141 for early warning, 45-46 environmental standards, 20 federal agencies for, 145-147 goals, 37, 46-47 historical practice, 37-40 importance of, 338 inadequacies in, 6-7, 41-42, 47-48, 115, 145 interdisciplinary collaboration, 215-216 NOAA activities, 402-406 organizational structure for, 7, 43-44, 48 physical systems data, 40 pressure-state-response model, 45, 138-139 for program assessment, 115 quality control, 42-43 for rates and directions of change, 13-14, 87-89

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals recommendations for, 7, 48 selection of indicators, 44-45, 46, 105 technological advancement for, 401-402 See also Indicators of environmental quality Moral issues, 411 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 355, 359, 368, 370-371 National Biological Service, 414-417 National Environmental Protection Act, 136, 197 National Forest Management Act, 148 National Institutes of Health, 357, 364-365, 368 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 146, 355, 363, 401-406 National Science Foundation, 355, 359 Natural disasters, 133 Negotiated conflict resolution, 32 Netherlands, 196, 198, 214-215, 316-318 North American Free Trade Agreement, 152 Nuclear fission, 63-64 current status as energy source, 66-67 recommendations for research, 10, 70 Nuclear fusion current status as energy source, 67 recommendations for research, 10, 70 research costs, 67 O Occupational Safety and Health Act, 55 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 212 Ozone layer, 238 P PCBs, 53, 299 PCSD. See President's Council on Sustainable Development Pesticides, 53 Petroleum energy industry self-regulation, 303-304 transportation consumption, 10, 70 Pharmaceuticals, 55 Population growth economic activity and, 81, 82 as environmental threat, 12, 81-83, 85, 449 management strategies, 82 monitoring, 403 PCSD goals, 128, 441, 446 policy goals, 84-85 policy issues, 13 policy-making environment, 12-13, 85 recommendations for policy, 13, 85-86 recommendations for research, 13, 86 risk assessment, 455 sustainable development and, 84 trends, 81, 403 Prairie ecosystem, 276-279 Predictive modeling chemical products, 56-57, 58, 59 climate change effects, 335 habitat fragmentation effects, 333-334 need for, 417 species addition/removal, 334-335 status of ecological science, 328-329 toxic exposure methodology, 455 Presidential-Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 453-457 President's Council on Sustainable Development, 18-19, 100, 149, 150 evaluation of goals, 112-115 goals, 104-107, 126-129, 443-445 inter-agency goal comparison, 110, 116-118 origins and development, 437-443 Pressure-state-response model, 45, 138-139 state measures, 141 Preventive interventions corporate environmental goals, 283 in corporations, 286-288, 291, 294-302 industry collaborations for, 302-308 market incentives, 262, 287

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals pollution prevention, 150-151, 449-450 systems approach for, 415 Product design and development chemical products, 52-55, 58, 59 energy systems, 65, 68-69 environmental management in, 287 industrial ecology approach, 11, 73-74, 311-313 life-cycle analysis, 301, 312, 314-316 nuclear fusion energy systems, 67 products as services perspective, 74-75 recommendations for, 12 Public perception/understanding as component of state environmental strategies, 245, 259 confidence in environmentally-safe economic development, 180-181 of current environmental status, 182, 188 development of environmental consciousness, 291-292, 407, 408 of ecological science, tools for, 340 electoral significance of environmental issues, 187-188 of environmental protection strategies, 185-187 of government role in environmental protection, 182-183, 186-187, 412 identification with environmental movement, 181 of indicators of environmental quality, 154-156 of industry self-regulation, 302-305 participation in regulatory process, 207-209, 446, 450 of risk assessment, 460-461 salience of environmental issues, 181-182 of spending for environmental protection, 184-185 success of environmental strategies and, 263, 411-412 of trade-offs in environmental protection, 183-184 trends, 188-189 Q Quantitative risk assessment for incentive-based regulation, 5 for noncancer health outcomes, 5, 35 recommendations for research, 5, 35 research needs, 31, 32 R Radioactive waste, 64 Recycling, 185 economic opportunity, 259-260 industry efforts, 305, 308-309 Regulatory system accomplishments, 432 analytical tools for, 31 of Canada, 217-218 for chemical products, 55 civil service tradition, 210 command-and-control approach, 29 consideration of local conditions, 198-199, 201 continuity, 260-261 corporate environmental management as response to, 285-286, 290-291, 293-294 corporate perspective, 294-295 costs, 4, 27-28 of European Community, 228-230, 233 evolution of, 136, 196-197, 202-203, 292-293, 407-408, 421 executive branch organization, 145-147 of France, 220 funding support for, 32 of Germany, 222-223, 224-225 goals of, 17-19, 408 government-industry coalitions for goal-setting, 308-309 industry efforts to influence, 306, 307-308 industry goals and, 20-21 integrated environmental policy-making, 197-198 international comparison, 194-196, 202-210, 215-216. See also specific country

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals of Japan, 233-234 legislative component, 99, 203-204 market functioning, 262-264 model of corporate compliance, 283-284 obstacles to international coordination, 27 participants in decision-making, 32 permitting systems, 209-210 pollution prevention interventions, 150-151 public participation, 207-209 public perception, 182-183, 186-187 reform, 115-116, 432-433 risk management applications, 451-453 role of, 424 science and policy-making, 193-194 technological development and, 34 of United Kingdom, 225-226, 227-228 use of standards, 204-207 See also Incentive-based regulation Renewable energy economic considerations, 65 recommendations for research, 9 Research biodiversity, 339 in Canada, 218-219 CENR goals, 107-110 chemical contamination, 8, 56-59 climate change, 63, 110 comparative risk assessment, 6, 31, 32, 35 cost-benefit analysis, 5, 31, 32, 34-35 development of ecological science, 328, 414 energy system, 9-10, 65-70 environmental component of federal budget, 365-368 EPA budget, 349, 355, 394-396 federal environmental budget, 355-365, 371-372 in France, 220-222 in Germany, 223-224 incentive-based regulation, 5-6, 32-35 industrial ecology, 11 integrated, 415-417 interdisciplinary social science, 115 international comparison, 237-238. See also specific country international cooperation, 236 in Japan, 234-235 limits of, 328 long-term needs, 332, 338, 341, 343 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 359 population growth, 13, 86 public health science, 457-461 quantitative risk assessment, 5, 31, 32, 35 science and policy-making, 442-443 scope of environmental science R&D, 357 state support for environmentally-oriented business, 254-259 technology trends, 401-402 transportation system, 10, 70 in United Kingdom, 226-227 See also Ecological knowledge; Information management Resource management adaptive management, 337-338, 341 in developing world, 428-429 ecosystem approach, 147-149, 331, 339 effects of habitat loss, 333-334 federal agency activities, 146 flawed assumptions about limits, 423-424, 425 government-owned resources, 351 importance of, 414 knowledge base for policy-making, 331-332, 337-338, 340-341 land use planning, 197 marine fisheries, 402, 405-406 modeling human impacts, 328-329 proactive, 415 risk assessment for, 451 site-specific information, 338, 341, 342-343 sustainable development approach, 149-150 systems approach, 416-417 Risk assessment, 439 application, 409-410, 450

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals bright line approach, 456 of Department of Energy sites, 460-461 ecological, 33 exposure modeling methodology, 455 health assessment and, 458-459 misunderstandings about, 453 objectives of, 450-453 Presidential-Congressional commission on, 453-457 public perception of current environmental status, 182, 188 regional variation, 201-202 toxin exposure limits, 454-455 variability and uncertainty in, 455-456 See also Comparative risk assessment; Quantitative risk assessment S Seattle, Washington, 253-254 Social values causes of death, policy-making and, 458-460 costs of environmental protection, 27-28 energy system, 61 environmental decision-making, 201 equity issues, 439, 444 federal budget as expression of, 348 goal-setting and, 245 goals for sustainable communities, 106 participants in policy-making, 32 public perception of environmental risk, 21-22 in risk assessment methodology, 442 scope of, 423 valuation of ecosystem services, 32, 330-331, 339-340 Solar energy, 68, 69 State, U.S. Department of, 146-147 State-level policy-making and regulation agency goals, 116 community-level programs, 253-254 comparative risk projects, 246-247, 258 continuity, 260-262 environmental technology programs, 254-259 goal flexibility, 259-260 goal-setting, 244-245, 248-254, 263-264 industry-government collaborations, 296, 308-309 inter-agency coordination, 252-253 performance standards, 262 state-of-the-environment reports, 247-248 strategic approaches, 245 trends, 19, 244, 245 use of environmental indicators for, 247-248 Structure-activity relationship, 55, 56 Superfund, 349 Sustainable development agricultural component, 440 definition, 149, 449 environmental indicators, 149-150 generational equity issues, 444 industrial practice for, 309-311 national goal-setting, 316-318 policy goals, 83, 149 rationale, 83-84 Systems engineering, 11-12, 73 T Total quality management, 88, 288 Toxic Substances Control Act, 55 Trade-offs assessment of, 111, 113, 116 public opinion, 183-184 Transportation, U.S. Department of, 147 Transportation system energy use, 62, 70 federal oversight, 147 PCSD goals, 129 recommendations for research, 10, 70 Trihalomethanes, 54 U United Kingdom, 196, 197, 199, 200, 225-228 Urban areas, 84

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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals V Volatile organic compounds, 102 Voting patterns, 187-188 W Waste management CENR goals, 134 CENR research goals, 109-110 EPA goals, 103, 123 industrial ecology approach, 73-74, 78 in manufacturing companies, 298-301, 318-319 radioactive waste, 64 Vermont policy and performance, 271-274 Water quality CENR goals, 134 current scientific understanding, 333 demonstration graphics, 166-171 designated use assessments, 268-269 EPA budget, 349, 350 EPA goals, 120 proactive interventions, 150-151 regulatory history, 196 suspended sediment concentration in streams, 140 Weapons manufacture, 24 Weather monitoring, 402-403, 404-405 White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, 7, 48 Workplace chemical product regulation, 55 EPA goals, 121 federal oversight, 146 Z Zero-emissions, 300