Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980's VOLUME 1 Report of the Astronomy Survey Committee Astronomy Survey Committee Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1982

OCR for page R1
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of fur- thenng knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership cor- poration. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. Front Cover False-color map of radio emission from the galaxy 3C449 recorded by the Very Large Array tVLA) radio telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory near Socorro, New Mexico. Colors are correlated with the intensity of radiation at a wavelength of 20 cm; the most intensely emitting regions are shown in red. The map reveals highly collimated jets of matter connecting an unresolved galactic nucleus to outlying "lobes" of ejected gas. (Photo courtesy of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory) Back Cover False-color VLA map of 20-cm radio emission Tom the supernova remnant Cas A, tracing the remains of a cataclysmic stellar explosion that occurred some 350 years ago in our Galaxy in the direction of the constellation Cassiopeia. The radiation is generated in shock waves sent through the surrounding interstellar gas by the expanding shell of stellar debris. (Photo courtesy of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory) Frontispiece Five of the 27 antennas, each 25 m across, that comprise the Very Large Array (VLA) in Socorro, New Mexico. Construction of the VLA, now operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, was the highest-priority recommendation of the Greenstein report. (Photo courtesy of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory) Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.) Astronomy Survey Committee. Astronomy and astrophysics for the 1980's. Includes index. Contents: v. 1. Report of the Astronomy Survey Committee. 1. Astronomy. 2. Astrophysics. I. Title. QB43.2N.38 1982 520 82~014 ISBN ~309~3249~ (v. 1) AACR2 Available from: NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, June 1982 Second Printing, May 1984

OCR for page R1
January 1982 Dr. Frank Press President National Academy of Sciences Washington, D.C. 20418 Dear Dr. Press: I take pleasure in transmitting to you the report of the As- tronomy Survey Committee, Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980's. This report contains the recommendations resulting from the third decennial study of astronomy and astrophysics to be carried out by the National Academy of Sciences. The Whitford report, Ground-Based Astronomy: A Ten Year-Pro- gram (~1964), presented the first Academy survey of the field and recommended a program for the construction of facilities for op- tical and radio astronomy, calling attention particularly to the need for increased numbers of optical telescopes of intermediate size. The Greenstein report, Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1970's (1972), treated both space and ground-based programs and for the first time established priorities ranging across all the fields of astronomy and astrophysics. Its recommendations led to the construction of the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope near Socorro, New Mexico; the launch of three High Energy Astro- nomical Observatory (HEAD) satellites for observations of x rays, gamma rays, and cosmic rays from space; the improvement of detectors for optical and infrared radiation; and a number of other advances. The present survey was requested by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which shared its funding. The Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences accepts this report as the consensus of the U.S. astronomical commu- nity and believes that it will be ranked quickly with the Whit- ford and Greenstein reports as an indispensable blueprint for the future of astronomy and astrophysics during their respective decades. The recommendations deserve the prompt attention and serious response of the agencies of our government. Unfortu- nately, the immediate future of support for astronomical science is clouded by the present austerity in budgeting for nearly all federal programs; one may hope, however, that the purposes of the present fiscal policies will be achieved in a reasonably short v

OCR for page R1
period and that a healthier base of federal scientific support will then be restored. Looking ahead to that time, the Assembly dis- cerns two broader concerns embodied in the report that deserve particular emphasis. The first relates to the future balance of funding provided to astronomy and astrophysics by the two federal agencies primar- ily charged with its support. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was able, during the 1970's, to compile an im- pressive record of achievement in space astronomy and astro- physics despite severe budgetary constraints and the consequent inability to undertake numbers of outstanding proposed projects. Although some have been temporarily deferred, many of the fa- cilities that will form the cornerstone of research in the coming decade (such as Space Telescope) are a testimony to the com- mitment of the federal government in support of space science during the 1970's at the level required for steady advance. As is made clear in the report, sustaining such a level of support is necessary to preserve the vigor of U.S. astronomy during the 1980's. By contrast, the annual budget of the Astronomy Division of the National Science Foundation (NSF) has for some years been less successful in providing the support necessary to sustain the vigor of programs in ground-based astronomy. The decade of the 1970's saw the initiation of only one major NSF construction project in astronomy, the VLA. This magnificent instrument, the first recommendation of the Greenstein report, has already be- gun to make dramatic contributions to research. However, fund- ing for the construction of a highly capable millimeter-wave ra- dio telescope, another prominent recommendation of the Greenstein report, has not yet received approval, although such authorization was widely expected to appear in the 1982 federal budget. Moreover, the NSF Astronomy Division operations budget burdened by having to absorb the expenses of the Sac- ramento Peak Observatory during the 1970's and those of VLA operations from now on has declined in real dollars to a level that threatens the productive operation both of the National As- tronomy Centers and of a.grants program vital to basic astro- nomical research at U.S. universities. There is a serious risk that the unique capabilities for astronomical research established in the United States with the backing of Congress and the Executive Branches of government will be dissipated. Commitment to re V1

OCR for page R1
store the health of U.S. programs in ground-based astronomy is urged in this report. The second concern we see reflected in this report, and one that extends throughout the scientific community, relates to the need for expanding national support of new-technology develop- ments. Most of the exciting discoveries in astronomy during re- cent decades are the direct result of advances in technology. In some cases, these advances resulted from programs directed specifically toward astronomical research; in others, they re- sulted from the adaptation of new technology originally devel- oped for other scientific, industrial, or military purposes. Thus, a broadly based program of technological development is no less important than the specific programs recommended in this re- port, if astronomical research is to move forward in the decade ahead. In fact, we believe that this is true of science in general; our national capability in science depends on a renewed com- mitment to a broadly based program of technological develop- ment. In a time of general retrenchment in the initiation of new starts, investment in development of new technology and in de- sign studies of very advanced facilities is a wise strategy. Sincerely yours, Herbert Friedman, Chairman Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences . . V11

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Astronomy Survey Committee GEORGE B. FIELD, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Chairman MICHAEL J. S. BELTON, Kitt Peak National Observatory E. MARGARET BURBIDGE, University of California, San Diego GEORGE W. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology S. M. FABER, University of California, Santa Cruz CARE E. FICHTEL, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ROBERT D. GEHRZ, University of Wyoming EDWARD J. GROTH, Princeton University JAMES E. GUNN, Princeton University DAVID HEESCHEN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory RICHARD C. HENRY, The Johns Hopkins University RICHARD A. McCRAY, loins Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics and the University of Colorado JEREMIAH OSTRIKER, Princeton University EUGENE N. PARKER, University of Chicago MAARTEN SCHMIDT, California Institute of Technology HARLAN J. SMITH, University of Texas, Austin STEPHEN E. STROM, Kitt Peak National Observatory (ex officio' PATRICK THADDEUS, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia University CHARLES H. TOWNES, University of California, Berkeley ARTHUR B. C. WALKER, Stanford University E. JOSEPH WAMPLER, University of California, Santa Cruz PAUL BLANCHARD, Executive Secretary DALE Z. RINKEL, Administrative Secretary 1X

OCR for page R1
Astronomy Survey Committee GEORGE B. FIELD, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Chairman MICHAEL J. S. BELTON, Kitt Peak National Observatory E. MARGARET BURBIDGE, University of California, San Diego GEORGE W. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology S. M. FABER, University of California, Santa Cruz CARE E. FICHTEL, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ROBERT D. GEHRZ, University of Wyoming EDWARD J. GROTH, Princeton University JAMES E. GUNN, Princeton University DAVID HEESCHEN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory RICHARD C. HENRY, The Johns Hopkins University RICHARD A. McCRAY, loins Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics and the University of Colorado JEREMIAH OSTRIKER, Princeton University EUGENE N. PARKER, University of Chicago MAARTEN SCHMIDT, California Institute of Technology HARLAN J. SMITH, University of Texas, Austin STEPHEN E. STROM, Kitt Peak National Observatory (ex officio' PATRICK THADDEUS, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia University CHARLES H. TOWNES, University of California, Berkeley ARTHUR B. C. WALKER, Stanford University E. JOSEPH WAMPLER, University of California, Santa Cruz PAUL BLANCHARD, Executive Secretary DALE Z. RINKEL, Administrative Secretary 1X

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Preface By the late 1970's, rapid advances in astronomical research had es- tablished the necessity for a new survey of the needs of astronomy and astrophysics to follow that presented in the Greenstein report, published in 1972. Following the appointment of the Chairman of a proposed new Astronomy Survey Committee in April 1978, prelim- inary planning began for the two-year study that has produced the present report, Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980's. In the summer of 1978, the Chairman wrote to 223 astronomers and physicists across the nation, asking for their nominations for membership on the new Committee; more than half responded, suggesting the names of 229 different scientists. From this list, seven scientists were selected to join the Chairman as the nucleus of the Committee, which first met in December 1978. Through the addition of other experts in various fields of astronomy and astrophysics, the Survey Committee eventually grew to 21 members, representing a wide variety of institutions in various parts of the country. Its final meeting was held in December 1980. The Academy charged the Committee with the development of priorities for a comprehensive program in astronomy and astro- physics for the 1980's. This task proved highly challenging, as the scope and power of astronomical techniques have grown impres- sively since the completion of the Greenstein report. For example, x-ray astronomy is no longer an emerging field of research occupied with studies of only a few bizarre objects; it has now matured to X1

OCR for page R1
. . X11 Preface stand with optical and radio astronomy as a comprehensive and versatile area of astrophysical inquiry. Infrared astronomy has grown from infancy to youthful vigor; ultraviolet, gamma-ray, and cosmic- ray observations have contributed important new results; and the more established fields of optical and radio astronomy have them- selves recorded dramatic advances during the past ten years. To these achievements must be added the contributions to astronomy made by the separate program of lunar and planetary exploration using deep-space probes, together with new results from related sciences. The overall charge to the present Astronomy Survey Com- mittee thus represented a challenge even greater than that so well met by the Greenstein Committee in its study of this rapidly changing field. In order to carry out its charge, the Committee first had to delineate its domain of inquiry. For the purposes of this report, observational astronomy is taken to be the obtaining of information about astro- nomical bodies by remote sensing from the surface of the Earth, from the Earth's atmosphere, and from Earth orbit in space. The Astron- omy Survey Committee has therefore not considered recommenda- tions for: 1. Instruments or facilities on spacecraft designed to escape Earth orbit, such as deep-space probes to the planets, Sun, or other bodies in the solar system; 2. Programs to study the nature or environment of the Earth itself, such as the Earth's atmosphere or magnetosphere; 3. The gathering and laboratory analysis of samples of matter orig- inating beyond the Earth; or 4. Instruments or facilities intended primarily to test the predic- tions of different theories of gravitation, rather than to obtain infor- mation about astronomical bodies, whether or not such tests are conducted in space or involve celestial observations. The foregoing restrictions on the present study are not meant in any way to minimize the importance of the areas of science thereby excluded namely, solar-system exploration by deep-space probes, Earth sciences, meteoritics, and gravitational physics. Each of these scientific areas, although not the subject of recommendations in this report, is a vigorous subject of research in its own right; each is also the province of one or more appropriately constituted committees or advisory groups, charged, like the Astronomy Survey Committee, with the formulation of recommendations for its guidance. Our national program of planetary exploration has been ably guided

OCR for page R1
Preface . . X111 by strategies developed by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) of the Space Science Board (SSB), which has published a series of reports dealing with strategies for the explo- ration of the outer solar system, the inner planets, and primitive solar-system bodies. Later in this decade, a probe to the Sun should become feasible; such a mission has been recommended by the SSB'S Committee on Solar and Space Physics (cssP), which has also con- sidered the role of in situ measurements in the study of the solar wind and its interaction with planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres. Eventually, deep-space probes devoted en- tirely to astronomical objectives should be considered; an identifi- cation of their programmatic roles may emerge through future rec- ommendations of SSB'S Committee on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics (CSAA). Investigations of the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere by space techniques have an important bearing on our knowledge of the structure and history of the inner solar system; strategies for such investigations have been developed by cssP and by the SSB'S Committee on Earth Sciences (CES). Through studies of meteorites and samples of interplanetary dust, it has been recognized that such material holds vital clues to the early history and chemical composition of the solar system, particularly through preservation of isotope ratios of astrophysically important elements; a thorough discussion of meteoritics and related research areas is presented in the recent report by COMPLEX on primitive solar-system bodies. Fi- nally, the Committee notes that the study of gravitational physics is of particular importance to astronomy, as the large-scale structure of the Universe is determined almost entirely by the action of gravi- tational forces. Some of the most important future tests of the General Theory of Relativity and other theories of gravitation may require experiments in space; the recent report of the SSB'S ad hoc Committee on Gravitational Physics presents a strategy for space research in gravitational physics for the 1980's. To begin the present survey of astronomy and astrophysics-and particularly to help identify the most important scientific questions for the 1980's-the Committee first established seven Working Groups. Four of these were chosen according to objects or physical regions of scientific study: Solar Physics, Planetary Science, Galactic Astron- omy, and Extragalactic Astronomy. A fifth Working Group, on Re- lated Areas of Science, was chosen to survey developments during the 1970's in other sciences of importance to astronomy and to bring to the Committee's attention the directions such research might take in the coming decade. The final two Working Groups, on Astrometry

OCR for page R1
XIV Preface and on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), were estab- lished to examine the rather different opportunities presented by these two specialized fields. The reports of the Working Groups served as internal Committee documents; because of their quality and vision the Committee has sponsored their publication as an independent supplement to the present report. These reports-which reflect the conclusions of the Working Groups rather than recom- mendations of the Survey Committee are to be found in the com- panion volume, Challenges to Astronomy and Astrophysics: Working Doc- uments of the Astronomy Survey Committee. To aid the Committee in the formulation of recommendations, the Committee also established six Panels. Five of these correspond to techniques of astronomical study and were intended to provide direct channels of communication with the communities of scientists em- ploying them: High Energy Astrophysics; Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Astronomy; Radio Astronomy; Theoretical and Laboratory Astrophysics; and Data Processing and Computational Facilities, al- though the last has obvious connections to the rest. A sixth Panel, on Organization, Education, and Personnel, was charged with a more general investigation of the health of the professions involved in astronomical research. All the Panels were asked to make recom- mendations in their respective areas for the consideration of the Survey Committee; these may be found in the second volume of the present study, Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980's, Volume 2: Reports of the Panels (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1982~. The Committee sought from the beginning to engage the widest possible participation of the scientific community. Together with con- sultants, the Working Groups, Panels, and the Committee itself in- volved more than 130 scientists. Meetings of nearly all of these Sur- vey groups were held at centers of astronomical research across the country in order to provide opportunities for other scientific col- leagues to be heard. In Open Letters of April 1979 and November 1979 to the 3700 members of the American Astronomical Society (AAS), the Committee Chairman explained the organization of the Survey, listed its participants, and invited the comments and sug- gestion~s of the scientific community. The second Open Letter was accompanied by a form that could be used by AAS members and their colleagues to propose astronomy projects or programs for the 1980's. The many responses received from this second mailing were directed to the appropriate Panels for evaluation and, where appro- priate, incorporation into the Panel reports and recommendations.

OCR for page R1
Preface xv The Committee also benefited from the study of numerous other reports dealing with future planning for astronomy and astrophysics. One of those most directly relevant to the present Survey is the recent report, A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980's (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1979), pro- duced by the CSAA of the SSB. Although restricted to research from space, this study went far in delineating many of the issues later faced by the Committee, and it also suggested the format of the present Committee's recommendations. The Committee believes that its own recommendations and those of CSAA are consistent and mu- tually supportive in the area of space astronomy and astrophysics. The recommendations for a program in astronomy and astro- physics, summarized in Chapter 2, are presented in three groups: Prerequisites for New Research Initiatives, New Programs, and Pro- grams for Study and Development. The major criteria for selection of scientific programs were scientific importance and technological readiness, although consideration was also given to cost-effective- ness. The recommendations of the Panels figured heavily in the debate over selection and priorities, but the fact of a Panel recom- mendation was not considered in itself sufficient for high priority or even inclusion in the recommended program. The final recommen- dations are those of the Survey Committee alone. Chapter 3 of the present report, "Frontiers of Astrophysics," pre- sents a discussion of a number of major areas of astronomical re- search today and illustrates the excitement of this field, which, per- haps more than any other science, has so captured the attention and admiration of the general public; it also provides scientific back- ground for the recommended program. The remaining chapters of the report describe the recommended program in greater detail and discuss the importance of each recommendation to the future de- velopment of astronomy and astrophysics in the United States. The Astronomy Survey Committee is grateful for the contributions of many individuals to its effort, particularly the members of the Panels and Working Groups listed in Appendix C. In addition, the Committee wishes to thank the following: Bruce Gregory and Hope Bell of the National Research Council staff, for invaluable advice and assistance; William E. Howard III of the National Science Foundation, and Adrienne Timothy, Jeffrey Rosendhal, and Franklin Martin of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, for helpful dis- cussions on many occasions and other much appreciated support; Ivan King, former President of the American Astronomical Society, Peter Boyce, AAS Executive Officer, and other members of the AAS

OCR for page R1
XVI Preface Council, for their interest and help in publicizing Survey activities; and, finally, Paul Blanchard, Executive Secretary; Dale Rinkel, Ad- ministrative Secretary; and Martha H. Liller for their tireless efforts on behalf of the Astronomy Survey generally. George B. Field, Chairman Astronomy Survey Committee

OCR for page R1
C`_ 1~ ~ ~ INTRODUCTION OUR COSMIC HERITAGE, 3 EXPLORATION AND UNDERSTANDING, 4 A DECADE OF OPPORTUNITY, 9 2 RECOMMENDED PRIORITIES FOR ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS IN THE 1980s SUMMARY OF THE RECOMMENDED PROGRAM, 14 Prerequisites for New Research Initiatives, 14 New Programs, 15 A. Major New Programs, 15 B. Moderate New Programs, 16 C. Small New Programs, 17 Programs for Study and Development, 17 ESTIMATED COST OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS, 18 BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW, 20 The Greenstein Report, 20 Perspective on the Present Survey, 23 Assignment of Priorities to Research Needs, 26 SUPPLEMENTARY TABULATION OF PROGRAM CHARACTERISTICS, 29 3 FRONTIERS OF ASTROPHYSICS LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE IN THE UNIVERSE, 37 Probes of Large-Scale Structure, 37 Expansion Time Scale, 40 3 13 37 . . XV11

OCR for page R1
. . . XVlll The Early Universe, 41 Groups, Clusters, and Superclusters, 41 Hidden Mass and the Fate of the Universe, 42 EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES, 44 The Study of Galaxies, 44 Formation of Galaxies, 46 Evolution of Galaxies, 48 Interaction of Galaxies with their Environment, 51 VIOLENT EVENTS, 53 Cosmic Rays, Supernovae, and Pulsars, 53 Binary Star Systems, 56 Active Galaxies and Quasars, 58 .. The Impact of Recommended Programs and Facilities on the Study of Violent Events, 63 FORMATION OF STARS AND PLANETS, 66 The Interstellar Medium, 66 Molecular Clouds and Star Formation, 70 The Solar System, 72 Roles of Theory and Observation, 74 SOLAR AND STELLAR ACTIVITY, 76 Activity on the Sun, 76 Stellar Activity, 80 The Role of Magnetic Fields, 82 Stellar Mass Loss, 84 PLANETS, LIFE, AND INTELLIGENCE, 86 Life in the Solar System, 86 Conditions for Life in the Universe, 88 Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, 90 ASTRONOMY AND THE FORCES OF NATURE, 91 Energy Sources in the Universe, 91 Two Puzzles: Solar Neutrinos and Hidden Mass, 93 Before the First Three Minutes, 95 The Limits of Gravitation, 96 4 APPROVED, CONTINUING, AND PREVIOUSLY RECOMMENDED PROGRAMS A. SPACE TELESCOPE AND THE ASSOCIATED SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE, 102 B. SECOND-GENERATION INSTRUMENTATION FOR SPACE TELESCOPE, 104 THE GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY, 105 LEVEL-OF-EFFORT OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAMS WITHIN THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION, 106 Contents 101

OCR for page R1
Contents x~x The Explorer Program, 107 Balloons, Aircraft, and Sounding Rockets, 108 The Spacelab Program, 110 TWO MAJOR ASTROPHYSICS FACILITIES FOR SPACELAB, 112 The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 112 The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), 113 F. FACILITIES FOR THE DETECTION OF SOLAR NEUTRINOS, 114 FEDERAL GRANTS IN SUPPORT OF BASIC ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH AT U. S. UNIVERSITIES, 115 H. PROGRAMS AT THE NATIONAL ASTRONOMY CENTERS, 117 I. THE 25-METER MILLIMETER-WAVE RADIO TELESCOPE, 119 5 PREREQUISITES FOR NEW RESEARCH INITIATIVES A. INSTRUMENTATION AND DETECTORS, 123 B. THEORY AND DATA ANALYSIS, 126 C. COMPUTATIONAL FACILITIES, 127 D. LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS, 129 E. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AT GROUND-BASED OBSERVATORIES, 130 6 NEW PROGRAMS A. MAJOR NEW PROGRAMS, 134 1. Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility, 134 2. A Very-Long-Baseline (VLB) Array of Radio Telescopes, 135 3. A New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the 15-Meter Class, 137 4. A Large Deployable Reflector in Space, 139 B. MODERATE NEW PROGRAMS, 140 1. Explorer Program Augmentation, 140 2. Far-Ultraviolet Spectrograph in Space, 144 3. A Space VLB Interferometry Antenna, 145 4. Construction of Optical/Infrared Telescopes in the 2-5-Meter class, 146 5. Advanced Solar Observatory in Space, 148 6. Cosmic-Ray Experiments, 149 7. Astronomical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, 150 C. SMALL NEW PROGRAMS, 151 A 10-Meter Submillimeter-Wave Antenna, 151 A Spatial Interferometer for the Mid-Infrared Region, 152 A Program of FIigh-Precision Optical Astrometry, 153 A Temporary Program to Maintain Scientific Expertise at U.S. Universities, 154 133

OCR for page R1
xx Contents PROGRAMS FOR STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT, 157 A. FUTURE X-RAY OBSERVATORIES IN SPACE, 158 B. INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES, 161 LONG-DURATION SPACE FLIGHTS OF INFRARED TELESCOPES COOLED TO CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES, 161 D. VERY LARGE TELESCOPE IN SPACE FOR ULTRAVIOLET, OPTICAL, AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS, 162 E. PROGRAM OF ADVANCED SPATIAL INTERFEROMETRY IN THE RADIO, INFRARED, AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL REGIONS, 164 F. ADVANCED GAMMA-RAY EXPERIMENTS, 165 G. ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES ON THE MOON, 165 APPENDIXES A STATEMENT CONCERNING A SPACE PLATFORM, 169 B ORGANIZATION, EDUCATION, AND PERSONNEL, 172 C PANELS AND WORKING GROUPS, 176 D ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT, 182 INDEX 67 85