References

Bagby, J.R., Jr. 1975. Back Contamination: Lessons Learned During the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program. Prepared for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Beveridge, T.J., J.D. Meloche, W.S. Fyfe, and R.G.E. Murray. 1983. "Diagenesis of Metals Chemically Complexed to Bacteria: Laboratory Formation of Metal Phosphates, Sulfides, and Organic Condensates in Artificial Sediments," Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 45, pp. 1094-1108.

Biemann, K., J. Oro, P. Toulmin III, L.E. Orgel, A.O. Nier, D.M. Anderson, P.G. Simmonds, D. Flory, A.V. Diaz, D.R. Rushneck, J.E. Biller, and A.L. Lafleur. 1977. "The Search for Organic Substances and Inorganic Volatile Compounds in the Surface of Mars," J. Geophys. Res., vol. 82, pp. 4641-4658.

Bogard, D.D., and P. Johnson. 1993. "Martian Gases in an Antarctic Meteorite?", Science, vol. 221, pp. 651-654.

Boston, P.J., M.V. Ivanov, and C.P. McKay. 1992. "On the Possibility of Chemosynthetic Ecosystems in Subsurface Habitats on Mars, Icarus , vol. 95, pp. 300-330.

Brakenridge, G.R., H.E. Newsom, and V.R. Baker. 1985. "Ancient Hot Springs on Mars: Origin and Paleoenvironmental Significance of Small Martian Valleys," Geology, vol. 13, pp. 859-862.

Brown, H. 1960. "The Density and Mass Distribution of Meteoritic Bodies in the Neighborhood of the Earth's Orbit," J. Geophys. Res. , vol. 65, pp. 1679-1683.

Brown, H. 1961. "Addendum: The Density and Mass Distribution of Meteoritic Bodies in the Neighborhood of the Earth's Orbit," J. Geophys. Res. , vol. 66, pp. 1316-1317.


Cano, R.J., and M.K. Borucki. 1995. "Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40- Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber," Science, vol. 268, pp. 1060-1064.

Carr, M.H. 1996. Water on Mars. Oxford University Press, New York.

Chang, S. 1988. "Planetary Environments and the Conditions of Life," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, vol. 325, pp. 601-610.

Chyba, C., and G.D. McDonald. 1995. "The Origin of Life in the Solar System: Current Issues," Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., vol. 23, pp. 215-249.

Clark, B.C., and D.C. Van Hart. 1981. "The Salts of Mars," Icarus, vol. 45, pp. 370-378.



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Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations References Bagby, J.R., Jr. 1975. Back Contamination: Lessons Learned During the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program. Prepared for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Beveridge, T.J., J.D. Meloche, W.S. Fyfe, and R.G.E. Murray. 1983. "Diagenesis of Metals Chemically Complexed to Bacteria: Laboratory Formation of Metal Phosphates, Sulfides, and Organic Condensates in Artificial Sediments," Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 45, pp. 1094-1108. Biemann, K., J. Oro, P. Toulmin III, L.E. Orgel, A.O. Nier, D.M. Anderson, P.G. Simmonds, D. Flory, A.V. Diaz, D.R. Rushneck, J.E. Biller, and A.L. Lafleur. 1977. "The Search for Organic Substances and Inorganic Volatile Compounds in the Surface of Mars," J. Geophys. Res., vol. 82, pp. 4641-4658. Bogard, D.D., and P. Johnson. 1993. "Martian Gases in an Antarctic Meteorite?", Science, vol. 221, pp. 651-654. Boston, P.J., M.V. Ivanov, and C.P. McKay. 1992. "On the Possibility of Chemosynthetic Ecosystems in Subsurface Habitats on Mars, Icarus , vol. 95, pp. 300-330. Brakenridge, G.R., H.E. Newsom, and V.R. Baker. 1985. "Ancient Hot Springs on Mars: Origin and Paleoenvironmental Significance of Small Martian Valleys," Geology, vol. 13, pp. 859-862. Brown, H. 1960. "The Density and Mass Distribution of Meteoritic Bodies in the Neighborhood of the Earth's Orbit," J. Geophys. Res. , vol. 65, pp. 1679-1683. Brown, H. 1961. "Addendum: The Density and Mass Distribution of Meteoritic Bodies in the Neighborhood of the Earth's Orbit," J. Geophys. Res. , vol. 66, pp. 1316-1317. Cano, R.J., and M.K. Borucki. 1995. "Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40- Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber," Science, vol. 268, pp. 1060-1064. Carr, M.H. 1996. Water on Mars. Oxford University Press, New York. Chang, S. 1988. "Planetary Environments and the Conditions of Life," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, vol. 325, pp. 601-610. Chyba, C., and G.D. McDonald. 1995. "The Origin of Life in the Solar System: Current Issues," Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., vol. 23, pp. 215-249. Clark, B.C., and D.C. Van Hart. 1981. "The Salts of Mars," Icarus, vol. 45, pp. 370-378.

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Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations Ferris, F.G., R.G. Wiese, and W.S. Fyfe. 1994. "Precipitation of Carbonate Minerals by Microorganisms: Implications for Silicate Weathering and the Global Carbon Dioxide Budget," Geomicrobiol. J., vol. 12, pp. 1-13. Folk, R.L. 1993. "SEM Imaging of Bacteria and Nanobacteria in Carbonate Sediments and Rocks," J. Sediment. Petrol., vol. 63, pp. 990-999. Freidman, E.I., and R. Ocampo-Freidman. 1984. "Endolithic Microorganisms in Extreme Dry Environments: Analysis of a Lithobiotic Microbial Habitat," pp. 177-185 in Current Perspectives in Microbiology, M.J. Klug, and C.A. Reddy, eds. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D.C. Fry, J.C., and M.J. Day, eds. 1992. Release of Genetically Engineered and Other Micro-Organisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (See Chapter 8, "Survival and Mortality of Bacteria in Natural Environments," pp. 100-119, and Chapter 11, "Spread and Survival of Genetically Marked Bacteria in Soil," pp. 147-159.) Gladman, B.J., J.A. Burns, M. Duncan, P. Lee, and H.F. Levison. 1996. "The Exchange of Impact Ejecta Between Terrestrial Planets," Science , vol. 271, pp. 1387-1392. Gooding, J.L., ed. 1990. "Scientific Guidelines for Preservation of Samples Collected from Mars," NASA Technical Memorandum 4184. NASA, Washington, D.C. Gooding, J.L. 1992. "Soil Mineralogy and Chemistry on Mars: Possible Clues from Salts and Clays in SNC Meteorites," Icarus, vol. 99, pp. 28-41. Greeley, R., and B.D. Schneid. 1991. "Magma Generation on Mars: Amounts, Rates, and Comparisons with Earth, Moon, and Venus," Science, vol. 254, pp. 996-998. Hochstein, L.I., K.A. Kvenvolden, and D.E. Philpott. 1974. "The Effect of Sterilization on Biological, Organic Geochemical and Morphological Information in Natural Samples." Internal NASA document prepared for the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. Hunten, D.M. 1979. "Possible Oxidant Sources in the Atmosphere and Surface of Mars," J. Mol. Evol., vol. 14, pp. 71-78. Jakosky, B.M., and R.M. Haberle. 1992. "The Seasonal Behavior of Water on Mars," pp. 969-1016 in MARS, H.H. Kieffer, B.M. Jakosky, C.W. Snyder, and M.S. Matthews, eds. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Jakosky, B.M., R.O. Pepin, R.E. Johnson, and J.L. Fox. 1994. "Mars Atmospheric Loss and Isotopic Fractionation by Solar-Wind-Induced Sputtering and Photochemical Escape," Icarus, vol. 111, pp. 271-288. Jannasch, H.W. 1995. "Microbial Interactions with Hydrothermal Fluids," pp. 273-296 in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Geological Interactions, Geophysical Monograph 91. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. Klein, H.P. 1979. "The Viking Mission and the Search for Life on Mars," Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., vol. 17, pp. 1655-1662. Kostelnikova, S., and K. Pederson. 1996. "Ecology of Methanogenic Archea in Granitic Groundwater from Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden," Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of Subsurface Microbiology , Sept. 15-21, 1996, Davos, Switzerland. Swiss Society of Microbiology, Zurich. Mahoney, T. 1976. Organizational Strategies for the Protection Against Back Contamination. NASA-CR-149274, Final Report, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Mason, B. 1962. Meteorites. Wiley, New York. McKay, C.P., E.I. Freidman, R.A. Wharton, and W.L. Davies. 1992a. "History of Water on Mars: A Biological Perspective," Adv. Space Res., vol. 12, pp. 231-238. McKay, C.P., R.L. Mancinelli, C.R. Stoker, and R.A. Wharton, Jr. 1992b. "The Possibility of Life on Mars During a Water-Rich Past," pp. 1234-1245 in Mars, H.H. Kieffer, B.M. Jakosky, C.W. Snyder, and M.S. Matthews, eds. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

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Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations McKay, D.S., E.K. Gibson, Jr., K.L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C.S. Romanek, S.J. Clemett, X.D.F. Chillier, C.R. Maechling, and R.N. Zare. 1996. "Search for Past Life on Mars: Possible Relic Biogenic Activity in Martian Meteorite ALH84001," Science, vol. 273, pp. 924-930. McSween, H.Y. 1994. "What We Have Learned About Mars from SNC Meteorites," Meteoritics, vol. 29, pp. 757-779. Melosh, H.J. 1988. "The Rocky Road to Panspermia," Nature, vol. 332, pp. 687-688. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 1995. An Exobiological Strategy for Mars Exploration, NASA SP-530. NASA, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC), Committee on Risk Perception and Communication. 1989. Improving Risk Communication. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society, P.C. Stern and H.V. Fineberg, eds. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Norton, C.F., T.J. McGenity, and W.D. Grant. 1993. "Archeal Halophiles (Halobacteria) from Two British Salt Mines," J. Gen. Microbiol., vol. 139, pp. 1077-1081. Race, M.S. 1996. "Planetary Protection: Legal Ambiguity and the Decision Making Process for Mars Sample Return," Adv. Space Res., vol. 18, pp. 345-350. Sillitoe, R.H., R.L. Folk, and N. Saric. 1996. "Bacteria as Mediators of Copper Sulfide Enrichment During Weathering," Science, vol. 272, pp. 1153-1155. Southam, G., and T.J. Beverdige. 1994. "The In-Vitro Formation of Placer Gold by Bacteria," Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 58, pp. 4527-4530. Southam, G., F.G. Ferris, and T.J. Beveridge. 1995. "Mineralized Bacterial Biofilms in Sulphide Tailings and in Acid Mine Drainage Systems," pp. 148-170 in Microbial Biofilms, H.M. Lappinscott and J.W. Costerston, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Space Studies Board (SSB), National Research Council. 1992. Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommendations. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Squyres, S.W., and J.F. Kasting. 1994. "Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?", Science, vol. 265, pp. 774-749. Stevens, T.O. 1996. "Lithoautotrophy in the Subsurface," Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of Subsurface Microbiology, Sept. 15-21, 1996, Davos, Switzerland. Swiss Society of Microbiology, Zurich. Stevens, T.O., and J.P. McKinley. 1995. "Lithoautotrophic Microbial Ecosystems in Deep Basalt Aquifers," Science, vol. 270, pp. 450-454. Townsend, J.E. 1990. Mars Sample Receiving Facility: Conceptual Design, Initial Processing, Contamination Control, and Biological Containment , JSC-24736. Prepared for the Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Tex. Woese, C.R. 1987. "Bacterial Evolution," Microbiol. Rev., vol. 51, pp. 221-271.

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