Barrows, Randolph C., Jr., and Paul D. Clayton. 1996. "Privacy, Confidentiality, and Electronic Medical Records," Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 3(2):139-148.

Bass, Alison. 1995. "Computerized Medical Data Put Privacy on the Line," Boston Globe, February 22, p. Metro/1.

Beth, Thomas. 1995. "Confidential Communication on the Internet," Scientific American, December, pp. 88-91.

Biddle, Brad. 1996. "Digital Signature Legislation: Some Reasons for Concern," available on-line at; downloaded February 20, 1996.

Billings, Paul, and Jon Beckwith. 1992. "Genetic Testing in the Workplace: A View from the USA," Trends in Genetics 8(6):198-202.

Billings, Paul R., Mel A. Kohn, Margaret de Cuevas, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph S. Alper, and Marvin R. Natowicz. 1992. "Discrimination as a Consequence of Genetic Testing," American Journal of Human Genetics 50:476-482.

Biometrics in Human Services User Group Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, July 1996.

Bloom, Charles. 1995. "Information Services: When Management Loses Control," Healthcare Informatics, June, pp. 104-108.

Bobinski, Mary Anne. 1990. "Unhealthy Federalism," U.C. Davis Law Review 24(255).

Bouchier, F., J.S. Ahrens, and G. Wells. 1996. "Laboratory Evaluation of the IriScan Prototype Biometric Identifier," Sandia Report SAND96-1033. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., April.

Brelis, Matthew. 1995. "Patients' Files Allegedly Used for Obscene Calls," Boston Globe, April 11, pp. 1 and 6.

Bulger, R.J. 1987. "The Search for a New Ideal," pp. 9-21 in In Search of the Modern Hippocrates, R.J. Bulger (ed.). University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.

Burgdorf, Jr., Robert L. 1991. "The Americans with Disabilities Act," Harvard C.R.-C.L. Law Review 26(413):434-437.

Caruso, Jeff. 1996. "The Enterprise and the Net," Interactive Age Online, available on-line at; downloaded February 21, 1996.

Cavoukian, Ann. 1996. "Go Beyond Security-Build in Privacy: One Does Not Equal the Other," paper presented at Cardtech/Securtech '96 Conference, Atlanta, Ga., May 14-16.

Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT). 1996. Privacy and Health Information Systems: A Guide to Protecting Patient Confidentiality. CDT, Washington, D.C. Chapman, D. Brent, and Elizabeth D. Zwicky. 1995. Building Internet Firewalls. O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., Sebastopol, Calif.

Chaum, David. 1992. "Achieving Electronic Privacy," Scientific American, August, pp. 96-101.

Cheswick, William R., and Steven M. Bellovin. 1994. Firewalls and Internet Security. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.

Clayton, Ellen Wright, Karen K. Steinberg, Muin J. Khoury, Elizabeth Thomson, Lori Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, Loretta M. Kopelman, and Joan O. Weiss. 1995. "Informed Consent for Genetic Research on Stored Tissue Samples," Journal of the American Medical Association 274(22):1786-1792.

CNN Interactive. 1996. "Yeltsin Had Heart Attack During Russian Elections," September 21, 1996, available on-line at

Cohen, Susan. 1996. "Tangled Lifeline," Washington Post, August 18, p. W11.

Computer-based Patient Record Institute (CPRI). 1995. Guidelines for Establishing Information Security Policies at Organizations Using Computer-based Patient Record Systems, CPRI Work Group on Confidentiality, Privacy, and Security. CPRI, Schaumburg, Ill., February.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement