and cryptography. He is the holder of three and coholder of four patents in the field, is author and coauthor of a book and numerous papers, and has lectured widely. He has been a member of numerous government and industry working groups and panels in the United States and Canada, including the System Security Study Committee of the National Research Council, which produced the report Computers at Risk.

Gordon H. DeFriese is professor of social medicine, epidemiology, and health policy and administration at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He received a B.S. (sociology and political science, 1963) from Middle Tennessee State University, an M.S. (sociology, 1966) from the University of Kentucky, and a Ph.D. (medical sociology, 1967) from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. He has served as director of the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research since 1973. He previously served as director of the North Carolina Cooperative Health Information System and has served on various subcommittees of the U.S. National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics. Dr. DeFriese has served on numerous state and national committees related to health care, primarily in the fields of health care policy and prevention, and he is a member of the Institute of Medicine.

Susan P. Dowell is executive vice president and chief operating officer for Medicus Systems Corporation. She received a B.S. (medical record administration, 1974) from Daemen College and an M.B.A. (1986) from the University of Seattle. Ms. Dowell's position with Medicus involves her with industry associations, including the American Health Information Management Association, of which she served, among other positions, as president; the Illinois Health Information Management Association, at which she was project manager for HL-7;1 and the Washington State Health Information Management Association, where she served as president and coeditor of the state newsletter. She is also a member of the medical record committee of the Center for Healthcare Information Management and a member of the Healthcare Information Management and Systems Society, the Healthcare Financial Management Association, and the National Association of Healthcare Quality. Ms. Dowell speaks frequently on computer-based patient record strategies, data quality, clinical data systems, quality assurance, productivity and performance standards, information systems strategies, and managed care strategies. She has also


HL-7 is a specification for a health data-interchange standard designed to facilitate the transfer of health data resident on different and disparate computer systems in a health care setting.

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