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ARTHUR HENRY WAYNICK 1 905- 1 982 BY ERIC A. WALKER ARTHUR H WAYNICK an internationally known scientist, engineer, and educator, died in London on August 31, 1982. He had retired in 1971 as Director and Founder of the Ionosphere Research Labora- tory and Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University. He had also been the first individual there to hold the A. Robert Noll Distinguished Chair in Electrical ~ . Engineering. His long interest in communications engineering won him distinc- tion in the field of the ionosphere. He may not have discovered the ionosphere (Kennelly and Heaviside guessed it was there about the time Arthur Waynick was born), but he and Appleton and Radcliffe, at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, first measured it, described it, and taught us how to use it. In 1948 he organized the Ionosphere Research Laboratory, which brought together a large group of experts to study the ionosphere. His expertise in the field led to involvement in the basic science aspects of the U.S. space program from its inception. Prior to his appointment to the Pennsyl- vania State University, Dr. Waynick served on the faculties of Wayne State, Harvard, and Cambridge universities. He was born in Spokane, Washington, on November 9, 1905. His father's small hardware store was bringing slim returns in the 1921 depression, so the family pulled up stakes and moved to Detroit, answering an ad by Henry Ford offering jobs to mechanics at $5 per day. Art Waynick developed an interest in radio while he was still in 287

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288 MEMORIAL TRIBUTES grade school; he got his amateur license, SAW, when he was only twelve years old. He was in contact with the airship Shenandoah as she was going down in the Pacific, and also communicated with the Hir~d~nburg, which caught fire at Lakewood, New Jersey. However, radio was expensive; he could ill afford the resistors, condensers, and those new vacuum tubes with which a transmitter could be built. Money was in such short supply that his uncle gave him some for a new suit for high school graduation. On that memo- rable day, however, his mother found him sitting in the audience instead of on the graduation platformhe had spent the suit money on a couple of UX 1 1 s for his receiver! He tried to save money for a college education by building radio receivers for a small manufacturer, but his money evaporated in the bank closings of the Depression. It took thirteen years, with his employer allowing him to work after classes from 3:00 P.M. to 1 1 :00 P.M., for him to put together enough credits to earn a B.S. in physics from Wayne State University in 1935. It is alleged that his knowl- edge far exceeded that of his instructors, and he was quickly signed on as an instructor in physics. At this time he met and married Lillian Wait, with whom he raised a family of three, two boys and a girl. He was at Wayne State for two years, during which time he became interested in the propagation of high-frequency radio waves in the atmosphere. He received a Guggenheim Fellowship to study physics at Cambridge, and he went with great enthusiasm, antici- pating that his studies would lead to a doctor's degree. His love of science was fulfilled by his study of the ionosphere in the Cavendish Laboratory with Appleton and Radcliffe, but all was interrupted by the start of World War II. His plans had to be changed, and he returned to the United States in 1939 and became an Assistant Professor of Physics at Wayne State University. Another good opportunity appeared in 1940 when Ted Hunt was putting together what later became the Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory, formed to do work on underwater sound for submarine detection. Joining that group allowed Arthur Waynick to have con- nections with the Cruft Laboratory and Professors Chaffee and Pierce and Mimno, who were also interested in radio propagation.

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ARTHUR HENRY WAYNICK 289 While at Harvard, he also received his Sc.D. in communications engineering in 1943. The Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory was asked to work on the development of an acoustic homing torpedo, and Art's elec- tronic knowledge was extremely valuable. He devised a biaural lis- tening system and a servomechanism that would allow the torpedo to steer toward an acoustic target. This later led to the first of the acoustic torpedoes, which was launched from an airplane to drop into the water and then, turning on its steering and propulsion mechanisms, pursue a rapidly moving submarine. This was one of the devices that broke the back of the submarine menace in World War II and led to the formation of the Ordnance Research Labora- tory, which still serves the Navy from Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Waynick became the Assistant Director in charge of electronics at that laboratory. In 1945 he was able to establish the Ionosphere Research Labora- tory at Penn State, dealing with his original interests. This labora- tory, still in existence, deals with the propagation of radio waves through the ionosphere. Its organization and scientific objectives were laid out by Dr. Waynick in the late 1940s, and they are still being followed. The laboratory is a source of much valuable scien- tific information and has proved to be the educational vehicle by which many scholars have obtained their doctor's degrees. Some of his important contributions included participation in the design, construction, and operation of numerous ground-based and rocket systems for the exploration of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly in the ionospheric D-region (50-90 kilometers in alti- tude). These studies resulted in the first definitive models of D- region ionization and provided a new basis for the prediction of long-distance radio propagation by the National Bureau of Stand- ards. They have also greatly improved the understanding of radio blackouts associated with solar flares and nuclear explosions, to mention a few. Work also included the design and construction of facilities for the first long-wave pulse sounding of the lower ionosphere; planning and construction of the only combined phase and amplitude wave- interaction facility in the world for D-region studies; the first rocket

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290 MEMORIAL TRIBUTES experiments involving radio propagation measurements between the rocket and a separating capsule; and the development of parachute- borne blunt probes released from ARCAS rockets for the study of the D-region. The laboratory has also been prolific in presenting papers throughout the world, in publishing papers, and in issuing . . . engineering and scientific reports. While this was the mainstream of his career, there were many side tracks. He was the Program Director for Engineering Science in the National Science Foundation for two years, and because of his inter- national connections, it was natural for him to finish his active career by serving as a Liaison Scientist with the Office of Naval Research in London, England. Possibly the most important work he did was as a Delegate from the United States to the conferences of the International Scientific Radio Union. He attended conferences in The Hague, Sydney, London, and Tokyo and was made an Honorary Member of the U.S. National Committee of the International Scientific Radio Union. He served on a number of committees for the National Science Foundation and the National Research Council. He was invited by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences to assist the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in review- ing the applications of candidates for science astronauts. He did committee work for the Institute of Radio Engineers and was a Director of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He was a writer on a wide range of subjects, including articles on engineering education as well as technical papers on the ionosphere in both the technical press and in more popular magazines. He served as the Associate Editor of the journal of Geophysical Research as well as the Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards. He received many honors and was a Fellow of both the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the American Geophysical Union. He became a member of the National Academy of Engineer- ing in 1969. Although Arthur Waynick was a native-born American and a very loyal one, his years in England made a great impression on him. To most of his friends he was the epitome of a true English

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ARTHUR HENRY WAYNICK 291 gentleman, speaking like an Englishman and gradually falling into the ways of the English. Much of his time in retirement years was spent in a cottage he owned in Cambridge, England. None of his friends will forget his courtly bow on being intro- duced, or his smile and inquiring nod, which said that to him you were an important person. Who will ever forget his pipe, always being lighted but never lit? He was the personification of Mr. Chips, the thoughtful, kindly, studious professor, surely not of science, one might think, but rather of English literature or some other gentle- manly discipline. But his quiet penetrating questions on the facts opened windows that showed the correct way to even the most belligerent adversary. He takes his place with the illustrious people who have individu- ally contributed so much to the benefit of society. His friends and former students are establishing an annual Waynick Lecture Series on the ionosphere in his memory. . .