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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY August 15, 1884-May 16, 1967 BY RALPH H. WETMORE IRVING BAILEY died on May 16, 1967, in his eighty-third year. He had had symptoms of a cardiac disability for some years, but no serious problem had arisen until he was subjected to a subterminal coronary occlusion in the laboratory one morning. His early arrival that day was as usual. For the fifty-eight years of his successive appointments at Harvard University, the institution at which he had spent his entire professional life, he was always the first or one of the first to arrive each morning. His hours were long, and his concentration on the task at hand was complete. This intentness of purpose along with a natural ingenuity and mechanical ability permitted him in those de- pression years between the two world wars to master his field. He became nationally and internationally recognized as expert in all aspects of morphological botany, ranging from cytology to anatomy, from evolutionary trends to phylogeny and tax- onomy, from organic chemistry to wood structure and wood technology, and from silviculture to preservation of forests. Newer instrumentation and improved quantitative methods have extended the margins of the wide range of knowledge that emanated from I. W. Bailey's laboratories, but little modification has become evident as yet in those fundamental principles and those patterns of organization and function in plants to which he gave his full attention. 2

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22 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS To understand how much Irving Bailey's entire life was influenced by his early life, to envision the man and his chosen field of endeavor, one must have a view of his early years. The only son of Solon Irving Bailey and Ruth Elaine (Poulter) Bailey was born in Tilton, New Hampshire, on August 15, 1884. His father, at that time thirty years of age, was Head- master of Tilton Academy. He had been awarded his B.A. de- gree at Boston University in 1881 and had already shown a predisposition toward astronomy, initiated when he was twelve years of age in his excitement, it is said, over the last great dis- play of the Leonid meteors on November 13 and 14, 1866. In the year of Irving's birth his father, then teaching a course in elementary astronomy at Tilton Academy, had written to President Eliot of Harvard University asking about possible opportunities to pursue studies in astronomy at that institution. President Eliot turned the letter over to Professor Edward C. Pickering, Director of the Harvard Astronomical Observatory, who was forced to write Solon Bailey that no opening then existed. Three years later, however, Mr. Bailey again wrote Director Pickering that, since he understood the observatory had received sizable funds in the intervening years, he was still hopeful of pursuing graduate study there. Pickering's reply intimated that Bailey might begin his studies for the master's degree if it was also possible for him to act as an unpaid assistant in the observatory. Enrolled as a degree candidate in 1887, Solon Bailey agreed to spend about forty hours weekly as an assistant. Within a few weeks, Pickering found Bailey's work so satisfactory that he began paying him a small salary and recommended that he be given course credit toward his degree, which he obtained in 1888. He was at once appointed to head a two-year expedition to Peru to find a site and make plans for a high mountain observa- tory for study and photography of stars in both southern and northern hemispheres under as favorable meteorological con- ditions as possible.

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 23 Pickering and Bailey chose a part of the Andes near the town of Chosica as promising for temporary study, this area being reasonably near the city of Lima with its port facilities at nearby Calleo. Careful planning enabled Solon Bailey with his wife and their three and one-half year-old son to arrive in San Francisco and embark for Peru on February 2, 1889, aboard the S.S. San Jose of the Pacific Mail Company. They were joined in Panama by Solon Bailey's brother, a professional photographer. It is stated that the accompanying baggage and material for building a planned, prefabricated observatory and living quarters for the family and staff comprised one hundred units, all of which had to be landed at Calleo and eventually transported over an eight-mile mountainous trail. At times, the trail had to be specially constructed to permit movement of equipment to a then-unnamed peaklater named Mount Har- vardabove Chosica, some 16,500 feet above sea level. The next two months were spent in the selection of an exact site, in mov- ing equipment and material, and in setting up the buildings and apparatus. The ensuing winter and early springMay to Octoberwere very satisfying to the astronomers. On the four- year-old Irving this all made a lasting impression; he had no time to be lonesome. Memories of these experiences persisted throughout his life and indeed enriched both his teaching and research. Irving's father and uncle utilized the following rainy and foggy season to explore for and select a more favorable site, both inland and at high altitude, for a permanent observatory station. Their reports resulted in Pickering's choosing a site above Arequipa at an altitude of more than 8,000 feet above sea level. The task of dismantling and moving buildings and equip- ment, and the valuable photographs and data not yet sent to Cambridge, was carried to a successful conclusion just before William Pickering, brother of the director, arrived in January 1891, with his staff to operate the station. The Baileys with

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24 young Irving were able to leave on May 9, sailing through the Strait of Magellan on their way to Europe before returning to Cambridge. Two years later, on February 25, 1893, Solon Bailey, with his wife, his eight and one-half year-old son, and two staff members, arrived again in Arequipa, this time for a first five-year sojourn, to replace William Pickering and his staff. By May (autumn), all was in order at the mountain station for productive work. Life at the station was busy around the clock. Because of ar- rangements made with the Peabody Museum at Harvard, archaeology became a recreational occupation. Investigation of Inca tombs and ruins proved fascinating to Professor Solon Bailey and had a profound and lasting effect on Irving. The latter in those early years accumulated many significant artifacts that he always took great pride in showing, and only in late life did he ultimately turn them over to the Peabody Museum. The second expedition of the Baileys to Peru was extended to 1905. In these twelve years, among other happenings, the personnel of the Arequipa Station had been subjected to a local revolution and to temporary isolation and privation. They were out of contact with the world for more than two weeks. This account of the early life of Irving Bailey during the two expeditions to Peru has been reported in order that the reader may visualize its enduring effect on him. He himself states in his fifty-year Harvard class report, "I now realize that my reactions and activities in college and subsequent to gradu- ation were profoundly influenced by the fact that eight of the hrst thirteen years of my boyhood were spent In remote parts of South America rather than in the environment of New England. Having no formal and stereotyped education until the age of thirteen, having no playmates of my own race and age, I was forced to rely upon my own resources for interests and activ- ities ...." His self-reliance, independence, ability to make decisions, powers of observation, quick reaction time, necessity BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ~ . .. . ~ ~ , , .

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 25 for considered judgmentsall were important characteristics that, if not acquired, were enhanced in his lonely boyhood and served him well throughout his life. Irving Bailey was never timid in his actions; he was, however, never gregarious. He had many acquaintances; he had fewer friends, but to these he was lastingly close. In early 1897, when Irving was thirteen, he was sent back to Cambridge to begin an orderly pattern of education. From Cambridge Latin School he was admitted to Harvard College in 1903. He received his A.B. degree in 1907, magna cum laude, having also earned membership in Phi Beta Kappa. In his fifty-year Harvard class report he also stated, "In college, I browsed around in history, chemistry, geology and meteorology, but it was not until my senior year that speeches of Gifford Pinchot and President Eliot induced me to undertake a career in forestry, particularly owing to the appeal of an out-of-door pro- fession." So he registered in the Division of Forestry of the newly designated Graduate School of Applied Sciences and received his M.F. degree in 1909. During his second year of graduate study he served as assistant in botany in a course con- ducted by Professor E. C. Jeffrey. Upon obtaining his master's degree he was appointed instructor in forestry, and in this role he studied lumbering and wood-using industries in the course of preparation for his teaching in forestry. In 1912, Bailey was appointed assistant professor in the School of Forestry, a unit in the recently aggregated Graduate Schools of Applied Sciences at Harvard. Since undergraduate training of foresters ceased with this reorganization, Bailey's teaching obligations were further reduced. In 1914, the status of the Bussey Institution and that of the School of Forestry were again altered, these two being segregated from the other Grad- uate Schools of Applied Science as codepartments in a new Graduate School for Research in Applied Biology. Both de- partments were officially housed in the Bussey Institution,

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26 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS though progressively more and more of the activity in forestry, because of the small number of graduate students involved, was conducted at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, some seventy miles west of Boston. The eminence of the Graduate School for Research in Ap- plied Biology grew until, in the late teens and early twenties, the Bussey Institution had attained both national and interna- tional importance. Though Bailey was appointed associate professor of forestry in 1920, his commitments were entirely to research in the interpretive aspects of plant anatomy rather than to silvicultural practices or to economic aspects of forestry. During the eight years of his assistant professorship, how- ever, the direct lines of the research Bailey was formulating for himself were retarded. In fact, when they had been little more than initiated they were almost put aside by three important sets of circumstances. In the life of a sensitive young man, the first was devastatingly and lastingly disturbing; the other two were exciting and challenging. The first of these circumstances stemmed from his two years of stimulative graduate study in the laboratory of Professor E. C. Jeffrey. Here he was in close association with other graduate students, especially Edmund W. Sinnott and Arthur J. Eames, who had been fellow undergraduates at Harvard. All three, as was inevitable in Jeffrey's laboratory, had become strong pro- ponents of evolutionary theory. They were finding in Jeffrey's comparative morphological outlook on plants and animals a challenging mod us operand i for examining those structural variations that could be correlated collectively with the survival and persistence of groups of organisms under naturally altered environmental stresses. Bailey and Sinnott were engrossed with the problems pre- sented by numerous cases of herbaceous species and contrasting arboreal species placed taxonomically in the same family. Which of these arose first in geological time and conceivably had given

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 27 rise to the other? Adherents to both points of view existed. Assiduous collecting of data from groups of fossil and living vascular plants provided abundant material for comparative morphological and anatomical studies. Examination of world- wide distributions of woody and herbaceous taxa in geological periods were made. Published results indicated that Jeffrey and his students had convinced themselves that arboreal plants had preceded herbaceous forms. However, despite this agreement as well as agreement that climatic changes had played a sig- nificant part in the survival of the short-lived annual herb, Bailey and Sinnott, on the one hand, and Jeffrey and R. E. Tor- rey, another of his students, on the other, disagreed on the causal relations of the developmental structural changes by which the annual herbs were enabled to complete their life histories and reproduce within a single favorable season. Argu- ments were not conducted amicably and reasonably in the lab- oratories, but were spread publicly in the scientific press. The issues should have been resolved, but the Canadian Scottish Jeffrey found it difficult to envision two sides to any question. The controversy between E. C. Jeffrey and Irving Bailey re- mained unresolved, and the estrangement persisted throughout their lives. The second circumstance affecting Bailey's research plans arose with the United States' becoming involved in World War I. In 1918 the Federal Aircraft Production Bureau requested and obtained Irving Bailey's services in a tour of duty at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. Bailey was placed in charge of the Wood Section of the Materials Engineering Division of Aircraft Pro- duction with the challenge of selecting woods for the manu- facture of airplanes. He was later cited for his contribution. He resigned in 1919, as soon as possible after the Armistice, and returned to the Bussey Institution. Bailey had hardly settled into his research routine, however, when the third circumstance arose. He was strongly attracted

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28 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS by a request of his senior colleague, the Dean of the Graduate School for Research in Applied Biology, Professor William Morton Wheeler, the specialist on ants and related insects. Would Bailey accompany him to the American tropics to study the peculiar and interesting relationships between ants and certain groups of tropical plants, the so-called "ant-plants"? The answer was, "Yes!" Bailey therefore spent much of 1920 in the tropics. The ants to be studied lived in hollow pith or comparable cavities in the younger branches of certain species of plants, mostly trees. When disturbed, they attacked all in- vaders viciously. From this trip to British Guiana there resulted seven papers, some jointly with Professor Wheeler, reporting on the habits of the ants and their methods of obtaining ingress and egress to their domiciles in the appropriated plant cavities. Once Bailey was initiated in a problem, his interest persisted. One can note in his bibliography a paper in a posthumous publication of Wheeler's in 1942five years after his deathon British Guiana ant-plants with a section contributed by Bailey. The period of the 1 920s was very significant in Irving Bailey's career. He had found himself impelled to move beyond the then-general conception of the training of foresters and of personnel for forest management and for industrial users of forest products. He was anxious to turn his attention to the little-understood basic problems underlying the growth of trees and their anatomical and physiological organization. The en- largement of his outlet as a result of the demands put upon his knowledge during World War I, coupled with his experi- ences with the exceedingly diversified arboreal flora of the rain forests of tropical America, had further convinced him that the time was overdue for understanding more of trees if the practice in the United States was to be other than to cut down our forests and exploit their products. Bailey's studies on the cambium, the circumferential growing layer of woody plants, whether tree, shrub, or woody vine, were

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 29 begun in 1918-1919. This followed an extensive systematic in- vestigation initiated with a graduate student, Walter W. Tup- per, of the range of size variations in vascular elements found in different groups of vascular plants, especially gymnosperms and angiosperms. Considering that all cells of the plant are derived from the isodiametric cells of the apical meristem, the queries, of course, were raised by Bailey, "How do the seemingly organized cell differences arise to produce the heterogeneity within a tree?" and "How much of the heterogeneity is heredi- tary and how much of the development and differentiation of cell types in the individual is influenced by local cellular condi- tions?" Bailey's authoritative knowledge was being called upon increasingly outside of Harvard University. In 1926 he was appointed a member of the Committee on Forest Research of the National Academy of Sciences. This committee, formed at the request of the Chief of the United States Forest Service, Colonel W. B. Greeley, was assigned the task of studying the nation's forest resources to assess our future needs in the produc- tion of timber, pulp, paper, and other wood products. A sup- porting grant was provided by the General Education Board of the Rockefeller Foundation. Professor Bailey was given a lead" ing part in this study. He traveled extensively over the United States and Canada and then spent most of a year in Europe investigating the relative significance of laboratories, tree nurseries, and experiment stations. He wanted to determine what was being done domestically in the conservation and replacement of our progressively disappearing forests and what was being pursued constructively in Europe that would help to enlighten a seemingly little-concerned, forest-destroying group of industrial enterprises in the United States. As a result of these studies, Bailey and Dr. Herman A. Spoehr of the Carnegie Institution of Washington's laboratory at Stanford University published in 1929 a significant small

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30 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS volume, The Role of Research in the Development of Forestry in North America. Bailey always considered this study and report one of the most significant efforts in which he had par- ticipated. The carefully considered findings should have had a profound influence on the establishment of a national policy aimed at maintaining a balance of reforestation with cutting and the utilization of our forest resources. The recommenda- tions of the percentages of publicly owned forests versus those in private holdings that should be maintained on a sustained yield basis were considered sound, as were the recommended protective measures against forest fires. The authors were con- vinced that "the existing economic, social and political status in North America was such as to inhibit for many years an extensive application of intensive European silvicultural methods." Moreover, the greater number of species of trees in the forests of the entire United States, with their naturally different responses to different climates, precluded a simple or single policy pattern. The authors believed that the nation needed a number of research establishments in the climatically diversified parts of our country, preferably in proximity to but not limited by the restrictions of larger academic institutions. The stimulation that would arise from proximity to laboratories in the basic sciences was considered to be a sine qua non for broad training and tolerant appreciation of natural problems. The organization and physiology of trees was in need of ex- tensive investigation; Bailey's earlier convictions were carried to a larger audience. The reports of the Committee on Forest Research of the National Academy of Sciences were turned back to a committee of American foresters, but the problems raised still exist more than forty years later, although some enlightened industries and limited government regulation, state and federal, have followed the main directions pointed out by the Bailey and Spoehr report. Bailey often spoke of the twenties and early thirties as the

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 1916 47 With E. W. Sinnott. The climatic distribution of certain types of angiosperm leaves. Am. I. Bot., 3:24-39. With W. P. Thompson. Are Tetracentron, Trochodendron and Memoirs of the New Drimys specialized or primitive types? York Botanical Garden, 6:27-32. The structure of the bordered pits of conifers and its bearing upon the tension hypothesis of the ascent of sap in plants. Bot. Gaz., 62: 133~2. With R. P. Prichard. The significance of certain variations in the anatomical structure of wood. Forestry Quart., 14:662-70. 1917 The role of the microscope in the identification and classification of the "timbers of commerce." l. Forestry, 15: 176-91. 1918 With W. W. Tupper. Size variation in tracheary cells. I. A com- parison between the secondary xylems of vascular cryptogams, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 54:149-204. With W. P. Thompson. Additional notes upon the angiosperms Tetracentron, Trochodendron and Drimys, in which vessels are absent from the wood. Ann. Dot., 32:503-12. Report on method and apparatus for mechanically testing wooden parts of airplanes. Wood Section, Materials Engineering De- partment, Bureau of Aircraft Production, Dayton, Ohio. 1919 Depressed segments of oak stems. Bot. Gaz., 67:438~1. Structure, development and distribution of so-called rims or bars of Sanio. Bot. Gaz., 68:449-68. Phenomena of cell division in the cambium of arborescent gymno- sperms and their cytological significance. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5:283-85. 1920 The formation of the cell plate in the cambium of the higher plants. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 6: 197-200.

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48 The significance of the cambium in the study of certain physio- logical problems. i. Gen. Physiol., 2:519-33. Some relations between ants and fungi. Ecology, 1:174-89. The cambium and its derivative tissues. II. Size variations of cambial initials in gymnosperms and angiosperms. Am. I. Bot., 7: 355-67. Phragmospheres and binucleate cells. Bot. Gaz., 70:469-71. The cambium and its derivative tissues. III. A reconnaissance of cytological phenomena in the cambium. Am. l. Bot., 7:417-34. With W. M. Wheeler. The feeding habits of Pseudomyrmine and other ants. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (II), 22: 235-79. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1922 The pollination of Marcgravia: a classical case of ornithophily? Am. l. Bot., 9:370-84. The anatomy of certain plants from the Belgian Congo, with special reference to myrmecophytism. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 45: 585-621. With E. W. Sinnott. The significance of the "foliar ray" in the evolution of herbaceous angiosperms. Ann. Bot., 36:523-33. Notes on neotropical ant-plants. I. Cecropia angulata sp. nov. Bot. Gaz., 74:369-91. 1923 Notes on neotropical ant-plants. II. Tachigalia paniculata Aubl. Bot. Gaz., 75:27-41. Slime bodies of Robinia pseudo-acacia L. Phytopathology, 13:322- 33. The cambium and its derivative tissues. IV. The increase in girth of the cambium. Am. i. Bot. 10:499-509. lg24 Notes on neotropical ant-plants. Gaz., 77:32-49. III. Cordia nodosa Lam. Bot. The problem of identifying the wood of Cretacous and later di- cotyledons: Paraphyllanthoxylon arizonense. Ann. Bot., 38: 439-51. Abnormalities of ring growth and cell structure. In: Studies on the Spruce Budworm, pp. 58-61. Technical Bulletin No. 37. To- ronto, Canadian Department of Agriculture. So-called bars or rims of Sanio. Bot. Gaz., 78:124-25.

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 1925 49 Some salient lines of specialization in tracheary pitting. I. Gymno- spermae. Ann. Bot., 39:587-98. The "spruce budworm" biocoenose. I. Frost rings as indicators of the chronology of specific biological events. Bot. Gaz., 80: 93-101. The "spruce budworm" biocoenose. II. Structural abnormalities in A bies balsamea. Bot. Gaz., 80: 300-10. 1929 With H. A. Spoehr. The Role of Research in the Development of Forestry in North America. New York, Macmillan Co. xii + 118 pp. 1930 The cambium and its derivative tissues. V. A reconnaissance of the vacuome in living cells. Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung mikroscopische Anatomie, 10:651-82. 1931 With C. Zirkle. The cambium and its derivative tissues. VI. The effects of hydrogen ion concentration in vital staining. l. Gen. Physiol., 14: 363-83. 1932 Preliminary notes on cribriform and vestured pits. 31 :46-48. 1933 The cambium and its derivative tissues. VII. Problems in identify- ing the wood of Mesozoic Coniferae. Ann. Bot., 47:145-57. The cambium and its derivative tissues. VIII. Structure, distribu- tion, and diagnostic significance of vestured pits in dicotyledons. I. Arnold Arbor., 14:259-73. Trop. Woods, 1934 With A. F. Faull. The cambium and its derivative tissues. IX. Structural variability in the redwood, Sequoia sempervirens, and its significance in the identificatior~ of fossil woods. l. Arnold Arbor., 15:233-54.

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50 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With T. Kerr. The cambium and its derivative tissues. X. Struc- ture, optical properties and chemical composition of the so- called middle lamella. i. Arnold Arbor., 15:327-49. 1935 With T. Kerr. The visible structure of the secondary wall and its significance in physical and chemical investigations of tracheary cells and fibers. l. Arnold Arbor., 16:273-300. 1936 The problem of differentiating and classifying tracheids, fiber- tracheids and libriform wood fibers. Trop. Woods, 45:18-23. 1937 With M. R. Vestal. The orientation of cellulose in the secondary wall of tracheary cells. l. Arnold Arbor., 18:185-95. With M. R. Vestal. The significance of certain wood-destroying fungi in the study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. l. Arnold Arbor., 18: 196-205. With T. Kerr. The structural variability of the secondary wall as revealed by "lignin" residues. J. Arnold Arbor., 18:261-72. 1938 Cell wall structure of higher plants. Chemistry, 30:40-47. With E. S. Barghoorn, [r. The occurrence of Cedrus in the aurif- erous gravels of California. Am. J. Bot., 25:641-47. Industrial and Engineering 1939 The microfibrillar and microcapillary structure of the cell wall. Bulletin of the Torrey :13otanical Club, 66:201-13. 1940 With E. S. Barghoorn, Jr. A useful method for the study of pollen in peat. Ecology, 21 :513-14. The walls of plant cells. In: The Cell and Protoplasm, ed. by F. R. Moulton, pp. 31-43. AAAS Publication No. 14. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science. With R. A. Howard. 1941 The comparative morphology of the Ica-

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 51 cinaceae. I. Anatomy of the node and internode. i. Arnold Abor., 22: 125-32. With R. A. Howard. The comparative morphology of the Ica- cinaceae. II. Vessels. l. Arnold Arbor., 22: 171-87. With A. C. Smith. Brassiantha, a new genus of Hippocrateaceae from New Guinea. i. Arnold Arbor., 22:389-94. With R. A. Howard. The comparative morphology of the Ica- cinaceae. III. Imperforate tracheary elements and xylem parenchyma. I. Arnold Arbor., 22: 432~2. With R. A. Howard. The comparative morphology of the Ica- cinaceae. IV. Rays of the secondary xylem. l. Arnold Arbor., 22:~56-68. 1942 With H. F. Wershing. Seedlings as experimental material in the study of "redwood" in conifers. J. Forestry, 40:411-14. With E. S. Barghoorn, in Identification and physical condition of flee stakes and wattles from the fishweir. Chapter 6 in: The Boston Street Fishweir. Papers of the Robert S. Peabody Founda- tion for Archaeology, Vol. 2. Andover, Mass., Philips Academy. With A. C. Smith. Degeneriaceae, a new family of flowering plants from Fiji. J. Arnold Arbor., 23: 356-65. With E. E. Berkley. The significance of x-rays in studying the orientation of cellulose in the secondary wall of tracheids. Am. I. Bot., 29:231-41. Descriptions and illustrations of Triplaris surinamensis. (A section including photomicrographs contained in an article by W. M. Wheeler entitled "Studies of neotropical ant-plants and their ants.") Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 90: 50-53. 1943 Some misleading terminologies in the literature of "plant tissue culture." Science, 98:539. With C. G. Nast and A. C. Smith. I. Arnold Arbor., 24:190-206. The family Himantandraceae. With C. G. Nast. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. I. Pollen and stamens. l. Arnold Arbor., 24:340-46. With C. G. Nast. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. II. Carpels. l. Arnold Arbor., 24:472-81.

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52 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1944 The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. III. Wood. .T- Arnold Arbor., 25: 97-103. With C. G. Nast. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. IV. Anatomy of the node and vascularization of the leaf. l. Arnold Arbor., 25:215-21. With C. G. Nast. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. V. Foliar epidermis and sclerenchyma. i. Arnold Arbor., 25: 342-48. The development of vessels in angiosperms and its significance in morphological research. Am. i. Bot., 31:421-28. 1945 With C. G. Nast. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. VII. Summary and conclusions. l. Arnold Arbor., 26:37-47. With C. G. Nast. Morphology and relationships of Trochodendron and Tetracentron. 26: 143-54. With C. G. Nast. Morphology and relationships of Trochodendron and Tetracentron. II. Inflorescence, flower and fruit. i. Arnold Arbor., 26: 267-76. Botany and its applications at Harvard: A confidential report to the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, pp. 1-116. ~ of, , I. Stem, root and leaf. J. Arnold Arbor., 1946 With C. G. Nast. Morphology of Euptelea and comparison with Trochod end ron. J. Arnold Arbor., 27: 1 86-92. 1948 With C. G. Nast. Morphology and relationships of Illicium, Schisandra and Kadsura. I. Stem and leaf. l. Arnold Arbor., 29:77-89. With B. G. L. Swamy. Amborella trichopoda Baill. A new type of vesselless dicotyledon. J. Arnold Arbor., 29:215. With B. G. L. Swamy. Amborella trichopoda Baill. A new morphological type of vesselless dicotyledon. J. Arnold Arbor., 29: 245-54.

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 1949 53 Origin of the angiosperms: need for a broadened outlook. l. Arnold Arbor., 30: 64-70. With B. G. L. Swamy. The morphology and relationships of Cercidiphyllum. I. Arnold Arbor., 30: 187-210. With B. G. L. Swamy. The morphology and relationships of Austrobaileya. I. Arnold Arbor., 30:211-26. 1950 With B. G. L. Swamy. Sarcandra, a vesselless genus of the Chlor- anthaceae. I. Arnold Arbor., 31: 117-29. With L. L. Money and B. G. L. Swamy. The morphology and relationships of the Monimiaceae. l. Arnold Arbor., 31:372-404. With P. C. Mangelsdorf. The administration of Harvard's endowed botanical institutions. A report to the Coordinating Committee for the Biological Sciences of the Board of Overseers. 62 pp. 1951 The use and the abuse of anatomical data in the study of phylogeny and classification. Phytomorphology, 1:1-3. With B. G. L. Swamy. The conduplicate carper of dicotyledons and its initial trends of specialization. Am. l. Bot., 38:373-79. Cooperation versus isolation in botanical research. Chron. Bot., 12: 126-33. 1952 Biological processes in the formation of wood. Science, 115:255-59. 1953 Evolution of the tracheary tissue of land plants. Am. I. Bot., 40: 4-8. With A. C. Smith. A new Fijian species of Calyptose/?alum. J. Arnold Arbor., 34: 52-64. With B. G. L. Swamy. The morphology and relationships of Idenburgia and Nonhuysia. J. Arnold Arbor., 34:77-85. The anatomical approach to the study of genera. Chron. Bot., 14: 121-25.

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54 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1954 Contributions to Plant Anatomy. Waltham, Massachusetts, Chron- ica Botanica Co. xxiv + 259 pp. With M. P. F. Marsden. A fourth type of nodal anatomy in di- cotyledons, illustrated by Clerodendron trichotomum Thunb. I. Arnold Arbor., 36: 1-5 1. 1956 Nodal anatomy in retrospect. I. Arnold Arbor., 37:269-87. The relationship between Sphenostemon of New Caledonia and Nonhuysia of New Guinea. l. Arnold Arbor., 37:360-65. 1957 Die Struktur der Tupfelmembranen bei den Tracheiden der Koni- feren. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 15:210-13. Aggregations of microfibrils and their orientations in the secondary wall of coniferous tracheids. Am. i. Bot., 44:415-18. With A. Fahn. The nodal anatomy and the primary vascular cylinder of the Calycanthaceae. i. Arnold Arbor., 38: 107-19. The potentialities and limitations of wood anatomy in the study of the phylogeny and classification of angiosperms. J. Arnold Arbor., 38: 243-54. Additional notes on the vesselless dicotyledon, Amborella trichopoda Baill. l. Arnold Arbor., 38:374-80. 1958 Need for a broadened outlook in cell wall terminologies. Phyto- morphology, 7: 136-38. The structure of tracheids in relation to the movement of liquids, suspensions, and undissolved gases. In: The Physiology of Forest Trees, ed. by K. V. Thimann, pp. 71-82. New York, The Ronald Press. 1960 Some useful techniques in the study and interpretation of pollen morphology. J. Arnold Arbor., 41:141-51. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. I. Foliar vasculature of Pereskia, Pereskiopsis and Quiabentia. J. Arnold Arbor., 41: 341-56.

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IRVING WIDMER BAILEY 1961 55 Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. II. Structure and distribution of sclerenchyma in the phloem of Pereskia' Pereskiopsis and Quiabentia. J. Arnold Arbor., 42:144-56. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. III. Form and distribution of crystals in Pereskia, Pereskiopsis and Quiabentia. J. Arnold Arbor., 42: 334-46. 1962 With L. M. Srivastava. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. IV. The fusiform initials of the cambium and the form and structure of their derivatives. J. Arnold Arbor., 43: 187-202. With L. M. Srivastava. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. V. The secondary phloem. J. Arnold Arbor., 43: 23~78. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. VI. The xylem of Pereskia sacharosa and Pereskia aculeata. J. Arnold Arbor., 43:376-88. 1963 Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. VII. The xylem of the Pereskias from Peru and Bolivia. J. Arnold Arbor., 44: 127-37. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. VIII. The xylem of Pereskias from southern Mexico and Central America. J. Arnold Arbor., 44:211-21. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. xylem of Pereskia grandifolia and Pereskia bleo. Arbor., 44:222-31. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. IX. The J. Arnold X. The xylem of Pereskia colombiana, Pereskia guamacho, Pereskia cubensis, and Pereskia portulacifolia. J. Arnold Arbor., 44:390-401. 1964 Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. XI. The xylem of Pereskiopsis and Quiabentia. J. Arnold Arbor., 45: 140-57. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. XII. Pre-

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56 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS liminary observations upon the structure of the epidermis, stomata and cuticle. l. Arnold Arbor., 45:374-89. 1965 Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. XIII. The occurrence of water-soluble anisotropic bodies in air-dried and alcohol-dehydrated leaves of Pereskia and Pereskiopsis. J. Arnold Arbor., 46: 74-85. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. XIV. Pre- liminary observations on the vasculature of cotyledons. Arnold Arbor., 46:445-52. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. XV. Some preliminary observations on the occurrence of "protein bodies." i. Arnold Arbor., 46 :453-64. 1966 Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. XVI. The development of water-soluble crystals in dehydrated leaves of Pereskiopsis. J. Arnold Arbor., 47:273-87. The significance of the reduction of vessels in the Cactaceae. I. Arnold Arbor., 47:288-92. 1968 Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing Cactaceae. XVII. Pre- liminary observations on the problem of transitions from broad to terete leaves. l. Arnold Arbor., 49:370-79.

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