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Biographical ~hlemoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biograpl~ical Memoirs VOLUME 5 1 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1980

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-02888-4 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from PRINTING AND PUBLISHING OFFICE, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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coNrrEN-rs PREFA C E ABRAHAM ADRIAN ALBERT BY IRVING KAPLANSKY LEONARD CARMICHAEL BY CARL PFAFFMANN LEMUEL ROSCOE CLEVELAND BY WILLIAM TRAGER LESTER REYNOLD DRAGSTEDT BY OWEN H. WANGENSTEEN AND SARAH D. WANGENSTEEN ALB ERT E I N STEI N BY JOHN ARCHIBALD WHEELER WILLIAM MAURICE EWING BY EDWARD C. BOLLARD ALFRED IRVING HALLOWELL BY AN PHONY F. C. WALLACE v V11 3 25 49 63 97 119 195

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Vl CONTENTS HERBERT SPENCER HARNED BY jULIAN M. S FURTEVANT WALTER ABRAHAM JACOBS BY ROB ER r C. ELDERFIELD ROBERT KHO-SENG LIM BY HORACE W. DAVENPOR r ALFRED LEE LOOMIS BY LUIS W. ALVAREZ HOWARD PERCY ROB ERTSON BY JESSE L. GREENSTEIN ERNEST HARRY VESTINE BY sco r-r E. FORBUSH WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. BY JAMES G. HIRSCH 215 247 281 309 343 367 387

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PREFACE . The Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes, beginning in IS77, containing the biographies of ~leceasecl members of the National Academy of Sciences ant! bibliographies of their published scientific contributions. The goal of the Academy is to have these memoirs serve as a contribution toward the history of American science. Each biographical essay is writ- ten by an individual familiar with the discipline and the scientific career of the deceased. These volumes, therefore, provide a record of the lives ant] works of some of the most distinguished leaders of American science as witnessed anc! interpreted by their colleagues and peers. Though the primary concern is the members' professional lives and con- tributions, these memoirs also include those aspects of their lives in their home, school, college, or later life that led them . . . ~ to t nelr soentlilc career. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists and engineers elected on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowlecige. Established by a Congressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, 1863, the Academy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualifier! individuals to clear with scientific and technological problems of broacI - slgnlncance. BRYCE CRAWFORD, JR. Home Secretary CAROLINE K. McEUEN Associate Editor . . V11

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