Intellectual Property and Openness

 

36

   

References

 

38

5

 

CASE STUDIES

 

40

   

Introduction

 

40

   

Recombinant DNA: A Patented Research Tool, Nonexclusively Licensed with Low Fees

 

40

   

PCR and Taq Polymerase: A Patented Research Tool for Which Licensing Arrangements Were Controversial

 

43

   

Protein and DNA Sequencing Instruments: Research Tools to Which Strong Patent Protection Promoted Broad Access

 

46

   

Research Tools in Drug Discovery: Intellectual Property Protection for Complex Biological Systems

 

48

   

Changes in Biotechnology Strategies

 

50

   

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs): Three Models for Disseminating Unpatented Research Tools

 

51

   

The Informational Value Of ESTs Is Rudimentary

 

53

   

The Value of ESTs Could Be Reduced by Limiting Access

 

54

   

The Human Genome Is Finite

 

54

   

The Advent of DNA Sequencing Presents Important Questions About Patentability

 

55

   

References

 

55

6

 

PERSPECTIVES FROM DIFFERENT SECTORS

 

57

   

Introduction

 

57

   

University Research

 

58

   

University Administration

 

59

   

Major Pharmaceutical Company

 

61

   

Attitudes Have Greatly Changed

 

61

   

Commerce and Science: Legitimate, Yet Competing, Interests

 

61

   

Research-Use Exemption Is Practiced as Rational Forbearance

 

63

   

Why Intellectual Property Is Important in Molecular Biology

 

63

   

Small Biotechnology Company

 

64

   

Genvec's Intellectual Property

 

64

   

Role of Venture Capital

 

64

   

Issues in Partnering Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Firms

 

65

   

Summary

 

66

   

Government

 

66

   

References

 

70

7

 

SUMMARY

 

71

 

 

AGENDA OF THE FEBRUARY 1996 WORKSHOP

 

75



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